Circumcision is surgical elimination of foreskin or prepuce of the human penis to expose the glans penis or head of the penis for any medical condition or religious reason. This procedure is usually done within 2 to 3 weeks of birth.
Redundant prepuce or foreskin is nothing but the excess skin that covers the glans penis or head of the penis when it is not erect. This can cause infection and inflammation in some men and thus, the removal of the foreskin or prepuce becomes necessary.
Phimosis is a medical condition where the foreskin becomes so tight that it does not retract from the glans penis or head of the penis and covers the glans penis at all times. This medical condition is more usually seen in newborns where the foreskin and the glans are more or less attached to each other, although it can occur in adult males due to infections rarely.
Circumcision is not mandatory for all new born infants, until and unless otherwise medically necessary or culture preferences.