The first thing which you notice when you meet someone is, more often than not, their face. Our face is something which we always take care of no matter how much we neglect other body parts…. many adolescents have spent sleepless nights over an odd zit here and there; however, having just pimples or something mild like that is nothing much to worry about, as there are many other serious conditions which can affect our face and oral cavity. In our FACE, MOUTH AND THROAT PAIN INFORMATION CENTER, we have covered many such medical conditions involving our face, mouth and throat. Hope you find this section and our website informative and recommend reading it to your friends, family, neighbors etc…
Given below is a brief survey of the topics which we have covered. For more topics and for more detailed information on the causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic testing, and different treatments of these conditions, please read under our FACE, MOUTH AND THROAT PAIN INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition caused by damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve. The function of the trigeminal nerve is transferring the sensation of touch to the face and permitting movements of the face. Individuals who already have multiple sclerosis are more prone to having trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnostic testing includes: CT scan and MRI scan. Symptoms consist of electric shock like sensations in the face, which can be very acute and lasts for some seconds, pain in the region of eyebrows and lower molar teeth etc are other symptoms. Sensory stimulus like, talking, touching, cold, wind etc. generates an attack of symptoms.
Treatment is done by giving medications like anticonvulsive medications which can provide quick relief. Other treatment options include: Peripheral nerve blocks/ ablation, retrogasserian ablative (needle) procedures, gasserian ganglion and craniotomy. Surgical methods comprise of:
- Peripheral Neurectomy
- Microvascular Decompression
- Percutaneous Stereotactic Rhizotomy
For more information, please refer to our side menu under our FACE, MOUTH AND THROAT PAIN INFORMATION CENTER
This is an infection (often viral) involving the respiratory system, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and is commonly found in children. This condition produces swelling around the vocal cords or larynx. Causes of croup include: Viral and bacterial infections, allergies, inhaling irritants and acid reflux. Symptoms include: swelling of the larynx, high fever, hoarseness, sore throat and "barking" cough. Conservative treatment usually suffices and includes: Moist/ cool air, using vaporizers, antipyretic medication, steroids and antibiotics for bacterial cause.
This is a medical condition comprising of loss of feeling, like paralysis, in a part of a body or uncontrolled movements of the body. Patient is not able to control his/her facial movements. Other symptoms include: Difficulty chewing, swallowing; tongue spasticity, slurred speech, uncontrolled emotional reactions. Cause is often damage to the brainstem neurons, particularly the corticobulbar tract. Treatment is done by treating the underlying cause of Pseudobulbar Palsy. Medications such as SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants can also be used.
Continuation or persistence of viral infection caused by Epstein Barr virus leads to mononucleosis. Blood tests confirm the diagnosis of mononucleosis. Mononucleosis lasts for around three to six weeks or can continue for many years also. Symptoms of mononucleosis are: Fever, weakness, sore throat, lethargy, drooling, breathlessness, yellowish tinge to the skin, loss of appetite, weight loss, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and tonsillitis. This condition is also diagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. Treatment consists of conservative measures, such as rest, antipyretics, analgesics, antiviral meds, gargling with salt water, lozenges and drinking lots of fluids and water. Some patients find relief using alternative treatment routes, such as homeopathy, hydrotherapy, hyperthermia, juice therapy, nutritional supplementation, acupuncture, magnetic therapy, neuropathic medicine etc; however, all these should be done under the guidance of a doctor.
We have given detailed information on causes, symptoms, investigations and treatment of this condition under our FACE, MOUTH AND THROAT PAIN INFORMATION CENTER.
Cancer starting in the pharynx, larynx, tonsils and epiglottis is termed as throat cancer. Different types of throat cancer are:
- Nasopharyngeal cancer.
- Oropharyngeal cancer
- Laryngopharyngeal cancer (hypopharyngeal cancer).
- Glottic cancer.
- Supraglottic cancer.
- Subglottic cancer.
Throat cancer, as with other cancers, is believed to occur as a result of genetic changes in the cells resulting in uncontrollable and rapid cell division causing them to accumulate and form a mass or a tumor. Risk Factors for throat cancer are: Smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol overuse, HPV and bad diet. Symptoms consist of voice changes, cough, dysphagia, ear pain, lump formation in the throat and weight loss. Diagnostic testing for throat cancer includes:
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan.
- Computerized Tomography (CT) scan.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan.
Treatment is done by radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and target drug therapy. For more details, please read under our FACE, MOUTH AND THROAT PAIN INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Tonsillar hypertrophy is a condition where there is enlargement or increase in the size of the tonsils. This occurs as a result of a chronic infection. Types of tonsillar hypertrophy are: 1) Acute Tonsillitis. 2) Chronic Tonsillitis and 3) Peritonsillar Abscess.
Causes include chronic bacterial or viral infections. Symptoms are: Voice changes, bad breath (halitosis), snoring, pain during swallowing, appetite loss and recurrent ear infections. Treatment consists of medications and surgical procedures. Antibiotics are given if the underlying infection is bacterial. In severe cases, tonsillectomy is done.
Cancer originating in the trachea (windpipe) is termed as tracheal cancer. This is a rare type of cancer. The exact cause is not clear. Risk factors include smoking and men are more prone to this type of cancer. Symptoms include: Dyspnea, dry cough, voice hoarseness, dysphagia, fevers, chills, frequent chest infections and wheezing.
Diagnostic Testing for Tracheal Cancer Includes:
- Medical history and physical examination.
- CT scan.
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan.
- Rigid bronchoscopy.
There are different staging methods used for Tracheal Cancer, such as TNM Staging and Number Staging System. Tracheal cancer is also graded as Low-Grade and High-Grade.
Treatment commonly done includes surgery and radiation therapy. Other than this, Laser Therapy, Cryotherapy, Diathermy, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), Airway Stents Treatment is done for managing and alleviating the symptoms.
To know more, please do read under our FACE, MOUTH AND THROAT PAIN INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Other Face, Mouth and Throat Diseases & Conditions Which are Covered in This Section:
- Throat Pain
- Throat Pain Due to Bacterial Pharyngitis
- Throat Pain Due To Bacterial Laryngitis
- Throat Pain Due To Viral Pharyngitis
- Throat Pain Due To Viral Laryngitis
- Strep Throat or Group A Streptococcus (GAS)
- Thyroid Gland Cancer
- Facial Paresthesias
- Facial Hypesthesia or Facial Numbness
- Mumps or Epidemic Parotitis
- Nasal Vestibulitis
- Facial Cellulitis
- Canker Sores or Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS)
- Cold Sores or Oral Herpes or Fever Blisters
- Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) or Glandular Fever or Kissing Disease
- Fight Against Hirsutism: Getting Rid Of Female Facial Hairs!
- Herpetic Stomatitis
- Q and A on Runny Nose or Rhinorrhea
- Oral Thrush
- Fractured Larynx
- Swollen Tongue