Lynch syndrome is a hereditary disease and pass on through next generation. It is caused due to the abnormality in DNA repairing gene, thus increasing the chances of contracting cancer. Lynch Syndrome is referred to as autosomal dominant condition.
Does Lynch Syndrome Skip A Generation?
Lynch Syndrome does not skip generation. It is a genetic disease linked to the autosomal recessive gene thus will surely pass on to the next generation if any of the parents is affected. 50% chances are that the offspring will be affected. If the offspring is not affected then the affected gene will not be passed to next generation.
Whenever there is a mistake in the information stored in DNA, either due to replication or due to any other factor, the DNA repairing genes are present which corrects the mistake. However, when there is a mutation in DNA repairing genes, the abnormality of the DNA causes serious risk for developing cancer. The risk of cancer directly depends upon the types of genes that get mutated. Lynch Syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition in which the affected gene is transferred to the offspring, which makes the family history a critical factor, in diagnosing the disease. The genes which are involved in the occurrence of the Lynch Syndrome are MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. The fact that requires further research is why the risk of some cancers is increased such as colorectal cancer or endometrial cancer as compared to other cancers. One more fact that requires a comprehensive investigation is why the mutation of some genes increases the risk of many cancers while mutation in some others only increases few cancers. Other factors that may increases the risk of developing cancer due to Lynch syndrome are age, gender and previous cancer diagnosis. There is no treatment of this disease as it is a genetic disease however it may be managed by reducing the risk for developing cancer. This may include screening through colonoscopy and endoscopy at regular intervals and the screening of endometrial and ovarian cancer risk through pelvic examination. The risk may also be reduced by avoiding those food ingredients that promotes cancer such as high fats and carbohydrate diet as well by incorporating the ingredients which reduces the risk such as antioxidants.
Genetic Implication Of Lynch Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is a condition in which the children get the affected gene from their parents. It is said to be an autosomal dominant inheritance condition wherein only a single copy of abnormal gene is required to develop a particular abnormality or disease or a specific condition. The pattern of such inheritance can be traced easily and there is a 50:50 chance of passing the abnormal gene and hence, the condition to each of the children.
From the above image, it is clear that the gene is present in 50% of the offspring. If the father or the mother is affected, then the offspring has the 50% chance of contracting Lynch syndrome. If the offspring has contracted the disease, it will pass them to the next generation and if the mutated gene is absent in the offspring then it will not be passed in the next generation. Thus, the lynch syndrome does not skip generation rather passes the mutated gene to the next generation. The Lynch disease increases the risk of cancer in the affected child. The major risk as a result of Lynch Syndrome is development of colorectal cancer. Various gene mutations are involved in the occurrence of Lynch syndrome. The major genes in which mutation took place are MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. A rare gene mutation also occurs in EPCAM. It is to be noted that the type of cancer whose risk has been increased due to Lynch disease depends upon the type of gene getting mutated. The risk of developing cancer is higher when the gene MLH1 or MSH2 gets mutated. The types of cancer that can occur due to Lynch Syndrome include colorectal cancer, Endometrial cancer, Ovarian cancer, Small Bowel cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Hepatic cancer, Brain cancer, Urinary tract cancer and Gastric cancer.
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