What Are The Complications Of Lynch Syndrome?

What Are The Complications Of Lynch Syndrome?

The complications that can occur with lynch syndrome (LS) are the increase risk of getting the following cancers. The below list comprised of the cancer with the risk percentage.

  • Stomach cancer complications – 1- 13 percent
  • Complications of colorectal cancer – 20 – 80 percent
  • Hepatobiliary tract cancer (bile duct/ liver) – 1- 4 percent
  • Urinary tract (ureter, bladder, renal pelvis) cancer – 1- 18 percent
  • Pancreatic cancer – 1- 6 percent
  • Central nervous system or brain tumor – 1- 3 percent
  • Small bowel cancer (intestines) – 1- 6 percent

Cancer risks for women with Lynch syndrome

Cancer risks for women with Lynch syndrome

Let us what are the measure you can do detect cancers at an early stage and what screening options that are available for cancers in patients with lynch syndrome.

Colorectal Cancer

About 75% of colorectal cancers (CRC) that occur in United States are sporadic cases. Lynch syndrome accounts for 2-7% of CRC diagnosed in US. CRC occur at a younger age (40-60 years) in patients with lynch syndrome, whereas normally CRC occur at the age 68-70 years. It is the most common cancer associated with lynch syndrome and it is the third most common cancer in the world according WHO statistics in 2018. Most of the CRC associated with lynch syndrome occur in the right side of the colon.

Screening for colorectal cancers should start at the age of 20-25 years and colonoscopy examination should be done every 1-2 years, which leads to detection of colorectal cancers at an early stage. This has reduced the risk of CRC to 63% and it also has reduced the mortality associated with colorectal cancers.

Endometrial And Ovarian Cancers

Women with lynch syndrome are at a high risk of developing the endometrial cancers (sentinel cancers) with a median age of 49 and it is thought that 50% of endometrial cancers are complications due to lynch syndrome. Like endometrial cancers ovarian cancer risk is not very high, but there is an increased risk of getting ovarian cancer more than the general population.

Screening for endometrial cancer should start at the age of 30-35 years with gynecological examination, transvaginal ultrasonography and aspiration biopsy should be done every 2 years. This increase the chance of early detection of endometrial cancer.

Ovarian cancer screening to detect ovarian cancers at an early stage has not been successful with CA125 and transvaginal ultrasonography. Studies suggest some studies suggest prophylactic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for patients who completed their family and who age 40-45 years.

Other Related Cancers

The risk of other cancers are small compared to the CRC, endometrial and ovarian cancers but stomach and urinary tract cancers has a high percentage. The complications of developing gastric cancer can be high in some countries.

Screening for stomach and small bowel cancers should commence at the age of 30-35 years by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and it should be repeated every 3-5 years.

Screening for urinary tract cancers should commence at the age of 30-35 years by an abdominal ultrasound scan, urinalysis and urine for cytology and it should be repeated every 1-2 years.

Summary

Complications of Lynch syndrome (LS) are the increase risk of getting cancer. Lynch syndrome people are at increased risk of getting have colorectal cancers (20-80%), stomach cancers (1-13%), urinary tract cancer (1-18%), women are at risk of getting endometrial cancer (15-60%) and ovarian cancer (1-38%). Screening for colorectal cancer should start at the age of 20-25 years and colonoscopy examination should be done every 1-2 years. Screening for endometrial cancer should start at the age of 30-35 years with gynecological examination, transvaginal ultrasonography and aspiration biopsy should be done every 2 years. Screening for stomach small bowel cancers should commence at the age of 30-35 years by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and it should be repeated every 3-5 years. Screening for urinary tract cancers should commence at the age of 30-35 years by an abdominal ultrasound scan, urinalysis and urine for cytology and it should be repeated every 1-2 years.

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