What Is Myxoid Neurofibroma & What Are Its Symptoms, Treatment Procedures?

Myxoid neurofibroma is the condition characterized by the flesh to the bluish-colored nodule. The condition is commonly found in the face, arms, and feet.

What Is Myxoid Neurofibroma?

Myxoid neurofibroma is a benign tumor. The tumor originated from the perineurial cell. The common location of myxoid neurofibroma is face, shoulders, arms, and feet. The occurrence of myxoid neurofibroma is rare on trunks. It has been advised that even the occurrence of myxoid neurofibroma is rare on trunks, the condition should be listed in the differential diagnosis of such tumors1. The tumor is demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining done for S-100 protein.

Myxoid neurofibroma is considered a rare condition. The condition does not progress rapidly and relatively slow-growing. The patient suffering from this condition remains largely asymptomatic. Myxoid neurofibroma is not commonly associated with neurofibromatosis.

Although the nature of cells involved in myxoid neurofibroma is benign, however, the condition may lead to complications because of the compression of local tissues. Tumor cells are spindle-shaped, present along with collagen fibers. Mast cells, axons, and fibroblast are also present in a tumor. Myxoid neurofibroma has the potential for recurrence even after complete removal.

Symptoms Of Myxoid Neurofibroma

The symptoms of myxoid neurofibroma depend upon the area of occurrence. Although the condition is most commonly found on facial region and feet, sometimes the condition may also occur on trunks and mediastinum. Myxoid neurofibroma generally presents itself as blue or pink-colored modules. Sometimes the flesh-colored module may also occur. Following are some of the symptoms associated with myxoid neurofibroma:

Myxoid Neurofibroma Of Palm: The condition is characterized by discomfort in some patients when the pressure is applied on the palm. At least one patient has a mild tingling sensation on ring fingers and middle fingers2. The condition may occur without any past medical history for such a disease. Myxoid neurofibroma in the palm may have palpable mass at the base of the ring finger and middle finger. MRI also helps in confirming the presence of this mass.

Myxoid Neurofibroma Of Trunk: Myxoid neurofibroma on trunk presents itself in the form of the slow-growing nodule with non-tender characteristic1. A flesh-colored nodular plaque may be present in the interior of the trunk. Myxoid neurofibroma of the trunk has the potential to recur especially when the tumor is not completely removed.

Myxoid Neurofibroma Of The Mediastinum: Because of its proximity to the mediastinal organs, unlike another commonly occurring myxoid neurofibroma, the mediastinal neurofibroma is presented by various symptoms. These symptoms include dyspnea, cough, pain, superior vena cava syndrome, and dysphagia. Superior vena cava syndrome may lead to thromboembolic complications.

Myxoid Neurofibroma Of The Soft Palate: In the soft palate, myxoid neurofibroma exists as a rapidly growing mass. The mass is painless and, in many cases, there are no spots or freckling. The disease affects both the adults and children without any bias to gender.

Myxoid Fibroma Of The Breast: A study reports a case of myxoid neurofibroma in 46-year old women with a 20-year history of Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1). On clinical evaluation, it was found that the women have subcutaneous neurofibroma, hamartomas of iris, and inguinal freckling3. Oval lesions were demonstrated in sonography while dynamic beast MRI reveals 5 masses in the breast.

Treatment Of Myxoid Neurofibroma

Surgical excision is one of the most common methods for treating myxoid neurofibroma. It is also to be noted that if the complete excision of myxoid neurofibroma is not done, the chances of recurrence are high. Multiple myxoid neurofibromas may occur and time and they may be removed through surgical excision. Surgical excision may be done under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation2. Homeostasis of feeder vessels is done before closing the skin. The condition may also be treated with a more refined approach known as Mohs surgery. Individual layers of the cancer cell are removed and are examined under the microscope until all the layers are removed4. This avoids any damage to healthy tissues.

Conclusion

Symptoms depend upon the organ in which myxoid neurofibroma develops. Rarely it may occur in soft palate, breast, trunk, and mediastinum. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment for a myxoid neurofibroma.

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