What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy, commonly referred to as CIDP, is a rare neurological condition characterized by nerve root and peripheral nerve inflammation and gradual destruction of the myelin sheath, which is a protective covering of the nerves (1, 3). The damage to the myelin sheath in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy causes disruption in the transmission of signals to and from the brain to different parts of the body (2). The myelin sheath damage in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy also results in nerve fiber loss, which ultimately leads to many serious medical conditions like motor function loss or even paralysis on one or both sides of the body(3).

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Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy may also cause loss of sensation in some areas of the body, especially the upper and lower extremities (3). The motor and sensory deficits are normally bilateral in CIDP and their severity is variable and differs from individual to individual (3). While in some cases of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy, the patient may show a steady onset of symptoms; while in other cases, the symptoms of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy may wax and wane.

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There have been various theories postulated as to the cause of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy and what role the immune system plays in the development of this condition. This article gives a brief overview as to whether the immune system of the body is involved in the development of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

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Role of the Immune System in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

What exactly causes Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy is still a matter of ongoing research and the cause is still unknown (3). However, many studies and researchers have suggested that Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy comes under the list of autoimmune disorders (3).

An autoimmune disorder is a pathological condition in which the immune system of the body mistakenly attacks the healthy tissues of the body affecting normal functioning of various vital organs of the body(4).The reason as to why the immune system mistakes the healthy tissues, as foreign objects is something which as of now remains unknown.

In summary, it is pretty clear from the various studies conducted that immune system plays a crucial role in the development of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy condition is therefore listed under the list of autoimmune disorders.

References:  

Sheetal DeCaria MD

Written, Edited or Reviewed By:

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Last Modified On: June 28, 2019

This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer

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