Stable MGUS does not require any treatment as the condition is not followed by the presentation of symptoms or even if present, they are mild. The coping management is directed to reduce the progression of the disease and to manage the symptoms in the process of progression.
Coping Methods For MGUS Or Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is the most common disease described under the umbrella called plasma cell dyscrasias.1 As the patient suffering from MGUS does not present any serious symptoms, thus no treatment is recommended for this condition. However, the regular checkup of the patient should be done, and the monoclonal protein level and the level of immunoglobulin should be monitored to note the progression of the disease. Following are the coping mechanisms outlined for the proper management of this disease.
Regular Monitoring. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is the condition which does not hamper the life of the patients. However, it has the risk of converting itself to various lymphoproliferative disorders including multiple myeloma. Thus, the best coping mechanism followed in this disease is to regularly monitor the disease. Various guidelines have been given to evaluate the patients as per their risk of progression and are divided into low-risk and high-risk MGUS. The follow -up should be done at every 6 months and the frequency may be altered as per the risk. The test conducted at each follow up may include serum M-protein electrophoresis, serum creatinine assay, serum calcium assay, and complete blood cell count.
Rituximab. The progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is characterized by the presence of MGUS polyneuropathy and studies have concluded that the use of rituximab has shown positive results in the management of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance polyneuropathy.2 Intermittent cyclophosphamide/prednisone or fludarabine can also be used for this indication.
Bisphosphonates. Osteoporosis is another complication of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. There is a significant reduction in bone mineral density. The drugs administered to such patients are bisphosphonates. The drugs included in this class are zoledronic acid, alendronate, ibandronate, and risedronate.
Analgesics. Analgesic drugs such as pregabalin or gabapentin can be used to treat the pain associated with the neurological disorder. Neurological disorder and pain are other complications of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.3
Healthy Diet. The diet of the patients suffering from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance should be healthy so as to cope with the symptoms of the disease and also to prevent its progression to more serious disorder.
Best Foods For MGUS Or Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Management
Green Tea. Green tea extract contain a variety of chemicals that prevents or slows the progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is an important ingredient which has a significant therapeutic impact.
Curcumin. Increase in the paraprotein concentration and its overload has a serious implication that may result in the progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to more serious lymphoproliferative disorder. Curcumin helps in reducing the paraprotein concentration and also of urinary N-telopeptide.
Shallots. Shallots reduced the risk of development of cancer by reducing the DNA damage in the cells. This is due to the presence of various antioxidants in shallots. Shallots may be incorporated in the diet of the patients suffering from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Soy Foods. Soy foods are also important ingredients that have a favorable effect on reducing the progression of MGUS to serious disorders. Some studies have concluded that soy isoflavones reduce the risk of multiple myeloma.
Garlic. Garlic has known to have a powerful anti-cancer effect. It is known for its cell repairing efficacy, reducing cell proliferation and inducing cell death.
Patient suffering from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance does not visit the doctor for this particular condition as the symptoms are not debilitating. The condition is diagnosed through a routine blood test or in the process of diagnosing some other disease. MGUS either do not have any symptoms or may have very mild symptoms including tingling, numbness or other nerve problems. Some patient may also suffer from skin rashes.
Various complications of MGUS include neurological disorder including neuropathy and related pain, osteoporosis, increased infection, and lymphoproliferative disorder. The coping strategy includes regular monitoring, analgesics, rituximab, bisphosphonates, and a healthy diet.