Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of uncommon disorders that often occurs in individuals who have a history of cancer. When this occurs, the immunological system fights the tumor by making use of the antibodies and lymphocytes by mounting on the immune system.
Eventually, it results in the collateral damage of the nervous system. Depending on the region where the nervous system is damaged. Paraneoplastic syndrome causes problems with movements, sensory perception, thinking abilities, and sleep issues.
What Is A Paraneoplastic Autoantibody Evaluation?
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are often associated with the presence of onconeural antibodies. Basically, tumors express neural antigen and the antibodies are formed as a result of the immune response against cancer.
Paraneoplastic autoimmune neurological syndromes imitate a patient’s humoral and cellular immune reactions to tumor irrespective of the tumor stage. The tumor can be either new or recurrent but they are generally restricted based on their metastatic volume. When you want to determine the serological condition of the patients, paraneoplastic antibody evaluation is often used. Patients who have a subacute neurological disorder of undetermined etiology, this phenomenon are the proven effective method, especially when the cancer factors are known.1, 2
Paraneoplastic Antibody Evaluation Uses
They are useful for investigating the neurological symptoms of cancer
Make a better disparity between the autoimmune neuropathies from neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy
They are often helpful in diagnosing paraneoplastic neurological autoimmune disorders related to carcinoma of lung, breast, and ovary. In addition, this evaluation can also diagnose thymic carcinomas and Hodgkin’s disease(cancer that starts in lymphocytes due to the presence of abnormal cells called Reed-Sternberg cells) in spinal fluid specimens
What Cancers Cause Paraneoplastic Syndrome?
This type of condition occurs as a result of cancer and show symptoms of humoral and cellular immune responses. During the immune response, autoantibodies certain for onconeural proteins present in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of neurons, glia, or muscle are produced. This often serves as a serological marker of this community. The common types of cancers associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome are usually breast cancer, Mullerian cancer, small-cell lung cancer and severe cases of lymphoma. Usually, an antibody profile can determine the neoplasm preciseness however it is not effective in evaluating the syndrome.
Antibodies Are Classified Into Varied Types
Neuronal nuclear ((ANNA-1, ANNA-2, ANNA-3) – are a distinctive serologic marker of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. Paraneoplastic disorders are potentially caused by the occurrence of neuronal autoantibodies in patient serum
Anti-glial/Neuronal Nuclear(AGNA)- A recently discovered antibody, called anti-glial nuclear antibody (AGNA), in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)
Neuronal And Muscle Cytoplasmic (PCA-1, PCA-2, PCA-Tr, and CRMP-5)
Plasma Membrane Cation Channel- Their functions involve establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals that span across the cell membrane permitting the passage of ions from one side of the membrane to another. They play a crucial part in neurological dysfunction3
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|PNEOI||Paraneoplastic Interpretation, CSF||No||Yes|
|AMPHC||Amphiphysin Ab, CSF||No||Yes|
|AGN1C||Anti-Glial Nuclear Ab, Type 1||No||Yes|
|ANN1C||Anti-Neuronal Nuclear Ab, Type 1||No||Yes|
|ANN2C||Anti-Neuronal Nuclear Ab, Type 2||No||Yes|
|ANN3C||Anti-Neuronal Nuclear Ab, Type 3||No||Yes|
|PCTRC||Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Ab Type Tr||No||Yes|
|PCA1C||Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Ab Type 1||No||Yes|
|PCA2C||Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Ab Type 2||No||Yes|
The cancers that often lead to these conditions are lung carcinoma (the most common type), renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, breast tumor, ovarian tumor, neural cancer, stomach cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
Antibodies targeted at the onconeural proteins are due to certain types of cancer and neoplastic syndrome conditions and these symptoms were not noticed on healthy patients who showed no signs of cancer or other associated disease.