Early Cancer Detection
CANCER, the term that scares every common man is now easier to be treated with all the latest medical technologies and advanced diagnostic procedures. The best treatment comes with the early diagnosis of the cancer type. There are a lot of new tests developing worldwide for detecting cancer which can help the doctors to diagnose cancer earlier. Early diagnosis has better prognosis when patient recieves early chemotherapy or surgical treatment. These diagnosis and tests for cancer detection may either be blood tests, urine tests or most advanced immuno lab test. One of such most advanced blood test to detect cancer is Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test (LGS). The current article will be revolving around the various types of cancer detecting blood tests, keeping the focus light on one of most recent cancer detection test called Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity Test. The specificity and sensitivity test suggest the Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test is better tool for diagnosis of cancer.1
A Short Note of Cancer and Cancer Detection
Not all the tumors are cancerous or dangerous. There are the benign tumors and the malignant tumors. The benign tumors do not spread to other body parts. Cancer is the term used for the malignant tumor; and is a group of diseases which involves an abnormal or uncontrolled growth of cells having the potential to invade or spread in other parts of the body. Cancer do not show enough noted symptoms while it begins in a body. A body starts showing the signs and symptoms of a cancer when the mass begins growing more and more, or when it ulcerates. General symptoms like fever, being tired easily, change in skin colour, loss of weight etc might occur at first which can be a clue to take the patient for cancer detection. There are many types of cancer to be studied for a better understanding. Following are the main types of cancer to be noted.
- Carcinoma: The cancers developed from the epithelial cells are termed as carcinoma. Breast cancers, lung cancer, prostrate cancer etc are the carcinomas.
- Sarcoma: These are the cancer derived from the connective tissues like the bone, cartilage, nerve, ligament and muscles.
- Lymphoma and Leukemia: These two forms of cancer are derieved from the blood cells. It is known that Leukemia is the most common cancer type in children affecting about 30%.
- Blastoma: The cancer growing from the embryonic tissues or the immature “precursor” cells, are called as Blastoma.
- Germ Cell Tumor: These are the cancer growing from the pluripotent cells. The cancer of ovary and testicles are considered as Germ Cell Tumor.
There are several type of cancer and several cancer detection tests. Usually the tests and diagnosis for cancer detection include imaging, blood tests, urine tests, biopsy, sputum test and immune studies. One of the most effective cancer detection tests recently published in scientific journal and discussed among the specilist is Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test.
The following array will discuss about the same.
How Is Cancer Detected?
“Detecting is done for knowing if there is a culprit in real to be punished!” Same is the case of any test or diagnosis done for detecting a disease. The cancer diagnosis and the tests for cancer detection are done so as to make out if there is a real cancer growing or it is something else. It is only after the cancer detection that a cancer treatment begins. Now, there are many types of cancer diagnosis & tests. Following are some of the much known methods for cancer detection.
- Imaging: Imaging procedures like MRI scan, CT scans, X-rays and ultrasound studies help the doctors in identifying if there is any cancer sign inside our body, without actually opening up.
- Endoscopy: Endoscopy is a technique which uses endoscope or a small tube with a camera that is inserted into the suspicious area of the patient and is studied for the presence of cancer cell.
- Biopsy: In this technique for cancer detection; small tissue sample is surgically removed and taken from the patient and identified under microscope for the presence of cancer cells.
- Blood Test: The blood tests are done taking blood samples for cancer detection. Usually these blood tests are done to identify the cancer cells, proteins and various other substances made by the cancer and released in the blood. There are a lot of blood tests known to be effective in cancer detection. Some of the most known blood tests will be studied in the below section.
Which Are The Various Types of Blood Tests For Detecting Cancer?
Check below for the list of various blood tests for cancer detection.
- CBC or Complete Blood Count: CBC is the blood test done to measure the total amount of various types of blood cells found in the sample. Blood cancer detection can be done by counting and recognizing if there are more or very few number of any particular type of blood cells or abnormal cells.
- Blood Protein Testing: In certain kinds of cancer like the multiple myeloma, there are some abnormal kinds of Immunoglobulins, where their amount may be increased or decreased than the normal level. These immunoglobulins are the immune system protiens and their abnormality can be detected by Blood protien testing. Electrophoresis test involves detection of cancer by finding abnormal proteins in the blood.
- Tumor Marker Test: There are some special tumor markers which are released from the tumor cells and can be identified for cancer detection. The markers like PSA for prostrate cancer, AFP for liver cancer and CA 125 for ovarian cancer are some of the known special tumor markers. These markers are released by the cancer cells and diagnosis depends on the level of increase of the markers. There are some protein markers elevated in blood which are produced by normal blood cells during inflammation or tissue trauma. Because protein markers are elevated in cancer as well as non cancer diseases, the test is considered non specific.
- Exclusively Potential “Universal” Blood Test- LGS test or the Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test: Something that is in the hot news of cancer biology is the LGS test. The Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test, discovered recently by the researchers from the University of Bradford, is a simple and quick blood test which allows the doctors to detect if a person is suffering from cancer or not. The test makes use of ultraviolet light of varied intensities which are subjected to the WBCs from the suspected person to find out if there is any damage caused to the DNA of the white blood cells to identify cancer. The entire research for the most advanced type of blood test for cancer detection, i.e. the Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test or LGS test is published online in the journal named FASEB. More on the test can be known from the following section of the article.
- DNA fragmentation Test- Several newer lab studies have been performed to evaluate DNA fragmentation to detect cancer cells.2, 3
What is Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity Test and Why Is It A Potential “Universal” Blood Test For Cancer Detection?
Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test, developed by the researchers from University of Bradford is a simple and potential “Universal” blood test discovered in the very recent times for detecting cancer. This is a less expensive and less invasive test procedure which have a great efficiency finding out if a patient has cancer or not. The whole concept of this Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity or LGS test lies on the use of UV light on the white blood cells and diagnosing for the level of damage caused to the DNA of the white blood cells, when exposed. Studying on the result of exposure of varied intensities of Ultraviolet light on the blood cells explains about the cancer presence or absence in the person undergoing the test.
It has been noted that there is a significant difference in the DNA of cancer cells or the pre-cancerous stages and the normal cells; when the UV light of different intensities are subjected to the WBCs. Let us look below for a convenient knowledge on the Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test or LGS blood test and its research study for cancer detection.
- The research study of Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test or LGS test was led by Professor Diana Anderson, and the researchers from the university school of life science, took blood samples from 208 individuals for their study.
- As per the professor’s explanation, “The cancer causes microbiological stress of the DNA. The DNA of the cancer cells, which is already under biologicl stress are likely to be damaged more when subjected to the UVA light. The similar changes in DNAs are observed in blood cells with cancer or any disease resulting in DNA stess. So DNA of the cells under stress caused by cancer when exposed to UVA light shows DNA abnormalities, which is not observed in normal cells. There is a marginal difference in the damage caused to DNA after the Ultraviolet light exposure in the cancerous cells and the normal cells.
- The 114 blood samples from 94 healthy people were examined. Patients were seen by oncologist (cancer specialist) at the cancer detection clinic.
- All the blood samples were first coded, anonymised, randomised and then finally exposed to the ultra violet light with varied intensities via five various depth of agar.
- As a result of the exposure to UVA light, it was seen that the DNA from the blood cells showed some significant type of damage in the studied cells.
- The Ultraviolet light exposure causes minor DNA damage in cancer as well as non cancer cells, which was identified in addition to the abnormal DNA changes caused by cancer cells. DNA changes observed as a result of cancer are also known as DNA commets. The DNA changes were far more in cancer cells than normal cells, which were observed in an electric field towards the positive end.
- The length of the commet-like tail formed from the damaged DNA in the positive end was measured and accordingly classified as the cancerous cells, cells with pre-cancerous conditions and the healthy normal cells.
- The result showed 58 samples were diagnosed as cancerous cells and rest 56 were in their pre-cancerous condition.
- Professor Diana Anderson believes the Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test or LGS test for cancer detection has a great potential to be universal and most effective tool for cancer detection that is simple and efficient.
- A clinical trial is on progress at the Bradford Royal Infirmary; which would confirm actual effectiveness of this potential blood test called Lymphocyte genomic sensitivity test(LSG).
A Positive Note To End The Topic On Cancer Detection:
It is a belief, “You can fight odds if you can love life more than any odd loves it.” If you have a positive sense for your life, for better health; then be sure you are going for a proper and early diagnosis anytime you find a change in your normal process. Any minor symptom can help you out detect many bigger issues of health and in turn help you prevent from any danger caused by the same to your life. “If cancer is something that gets goose bumps in your skin and worried beats at your heart; then be sure you are opting for an early visit to the doctor and undergo the diagnosis & tests prescribed.”
Hope for the best of a worldwide availability of the most recent, simple and potential “universal” blood test for cancer detection. Lymphocyte Genomic Sensitivity test or LSG test can save many of the cancer struggling lives.
1. Sensitivity and specificity of the empirical lymphocyte genome sensitivity (LGS) assay: implications for improving cancer diagnostics.
Anderson D1, Najafzadeh M2, Gopalan R2, Ghaderi N2, Scally AJ2, Britland ST3, Jacobs BK4, Reynolds PD4, Davies J4, Wright AL4, Al-Ghazal S4, Sharpe D4,Denyer MC2.
FASEB J. 2014 Jul 25. pii: fj.14-254748.
2. A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA.
Hooker DJ1, Mobarok M, Anderson JL, Rajasuriar R, Gray LR, Ellett AM, Lewin SR, Gorry PR, Cherry CL.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(15):e113. Epub 2012 Apr 28.
3. γH2AX as a marker of DNA double strand breaks and genomic instability in human population studies.
Valdiglesias V1, Giunta S, Fenech M, Neri M, Bonassi S.
Mutat Res. 2013 Jul-Sep;753(1):24-40.