Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Carpal Tunnel Release

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment of median nerve within carpal tunnel resulting in severe pain, tingling and numbness along the course of median nerve.

Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

  1. Obesity.
  2. Arthritis.
  3. Diabetes.
  4. Hypothyroidism.
  5. Lipoma, Ganglion or bursitis.
  6. Vascular malformation.
  7. Median nerve neuropathy.

The Flexor Retinaculum:

  • Strong, fibrous band that arches over the wrist.
  • Attached to wrist bones.
  • Attachment
    1. Medially attached to hamate and pisiform bones.
    2. Laterally attached to scaphoid and trapezium bones.
  • Carpal tunnel
    1. Shaped as Concave arch.
    2. Lies between flexor retinaculum and wrist bone.
    3. Holds the median nerve and the flexor tendons.
    4. Total of nine flexor tendonspass through the carpal tunnel.

Fibrous Retinaculum:

  • Rectangular in shape
  • Situated under skin and subcutaneous tissue.
  • Median nerve passes through carpal tunnel.
  • Ulnar nerve lies outside tunnel over surface of flexor retinaculum.

The medial nerve when pinched causes severe intractable pain,tingling, numbness and weakness. Symptoms are spread over thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. Numbness is often associated with weakness of digital muscles.


  • Conservative treatment includes
    1. Anti-inflammatory medications
    2. Physical therapy and
    3. Corticosteroid injection
  • Surgery is to divide the transverse carpal ligament in two.
Team PainAssist
Team PainAssist
Written, Edited or Reviewed By: Team PainAssist, Pain Assist Inc. This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer
Last Modified On:August 30, 2019

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