The kidneys are two bean shaped organs located on both the sides of the spine, above the waist and in the center of the back. Kidneys are one of the most important organs in the human body. They are responsible for many life-sustaining functions such as: eliminating waste from the blood, maintaining adequate balance of salt and minerals and also maintaining blood pressure. Any disease of the kidneys can result in lot of problems, as the waste products instead of being eliminated, start to accumulate in the body; and you can imagine what a host of problems that can cause, such as edema, vomiting, insomnia, weakness, breathlessness etc. If the kidney problem or disease is ignored and not treated promptly, then it can cause permanent and irreversible damage to the kidneys with them not being able to function ever again! This is a very serious condition and should be avoided at all costs.
So, it is very important to know and be aware of the different signs, symptoms, risk factors etc. for kidney diseases. To that end, we have introduced our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER in our website where we have covered an unbelievable number of kidney diseases in great detail.
Given below are snippets of some of the topics which we have covered in our Kidney Disease section. If you want to read in detail, then please click under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu where we have many topics with their causes, symptoms, risk factors, complications, investigations, treatment, prognosis and prevention in great detail.
Pyelonephritis is a urinary tract infection which commonly originates in the bladder or urethra and moves up into the kidneys. Cause of pyelonephritis is bacteria, could also be from infection from other parts of the body. Symptoms of pyelonephritis includes: Fever, back pain, abdominal pain, frequent urination, constant urge to urinate, pain when urinating, hematuria, nausea and vomiting. Treatment for Pyelonephritis comprises of mainly antibiotics.
To know more about Kidney Infection or Pyelonephritis and its prevention, please refer to the side menu under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER.
Nephropathic Cystinosis is an inherited disorder which is autosomal recessive in nature. This condition occurs as a result of build up of amino acid cysteine in the cells leading to cellular damage and causing damage to vital organs in the body, particularly the eyes and kidneys. The cause for cystinosis is mutations in CTNS gene. Symptoms of nephropathic cystinosis consists of muscle deterioration, blindness, inability to swallow, impaired sweating, decreased pigmentation in hair and skin, diabetes, end stage renal disease and low thyroid hormone. Treatment for nephropathic cystinosis includes symptomatic treatment like rehydration and vitamin D in high dosages and medications like NSAIDs, thyroid hormone treatment, growth hormone treatment, cysteamine eye drops and renal transplantation in serious cases.
This is a Kidney Disease which causes fluid accumulation in the cyst within the kidney. Causes of ACKD includes: Spilling of metabolites, i.e. the waste which is not removed through the dialysis leads to cyst formation in the kidneys. Symptoms of ACKD include flank pain, hematuria, fever, chills, body aches, joint pain, hypertension and palpable cyst if it’s large in size. Diagnosis of ACKD can be made through ultrasound, CT scan and MRI. Treatment for ACKD consists of antibiotics (if infected), NSAIDs and drainage of the cyst.
For more details, please read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER.
This condition is characterized by formation of phosphate crystals in the renal tubules resulting in kidney damage. Causes include: Intake of oral sodium phosphate and risk factors include age, dehydration, other kidney problems, electrolyte imbalance or when an individual has hypertension. Symptoms include: Heart rate aberrancy, bloating, fatigue, hypertension, low back pain, muscle cramping and spasms, seizures, drowsiness and swelling in the ankles and feet. There is no definite treatment for acute phosphate nephropathy. One has to be aware, as well as try to avoid the risk factors for preventing this disease.
This is a serious kidney disease which affects the renal tubules causing cellular destruction and death. Causes of ATN includes: Ischemia, anemia, hypotension, hypoxia and toxic reaction. Symptoms of ATN comprise of daytime drowsiness, fatigue, excessive thirst, nausea, confusion, edema, hematuria and proteinuria. Diagnosis of ATN can be made by urine tests, blood tests, renal biopsy and CT scan of the kidney. Treatment comprises of monitoring fluid intake, restricting protein and salt, diuretics and dialysis.
To know more about Acute Tubular Necrosis, please read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
This condition occurs as a result of analgesics overuse or overconsumption of analgesics. Symptoms of Analgesic Nephropathy include: Pain, polyuria, hematuria, hypertension, anemia and proteinuria. Diagnosis can be confirmed by urinalysis, CBC, CT scan, intravenous pyelogram, toxicology screening and ultrasound of the kidneys. The main treatment for Analgesic Nephropathy is stopping all OTC medications.
To know more Analgesic Nephropathy and its prevention, please read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Angiomyolipoma is a common kidney tumor commonly seen in females. Angiomyolipoma is caused by genetic abnormalities. Symptoms of angiomyolipoma comprise of palpable mass, flank pain, frequent UTIs, hematuria, renal failure, anemia, hypertension, retroperitoneal haemorrhage and shock. Diagnosis can be confirmed by ultrasound, CT scan, MRI scan and kidney biopsy. Treatment for Angiomyolipoma consists of elective embolization, emergency embolization and partial nephrectomy.
Bartter Syndrome is an inherited pathological condition of the kidneys characterized by loss of potassium via urine leading to various complications. Genetic disorder is the cause of Bartter Syndrome. Symptoms of Bartter Syndrome consist of vomiting, constipation, growth retardation, increased urination, muscle cramping, hypotension, kidney stone and hypokalemia. Treatment for Bartter Syndrome comprises of managing the potassium level, monitoring sodium intake, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive medications.
To know more about Bartter Syndrome, including why it’s also known as Salt Wasting Nephropathy, please look under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
This is a condition where the urine is red or pink in color after consuming beetroot or foods which contain dye. This occurs because of a pigment betanin, present in beetroot. Symptoms of Beeturia other than the red or pink colored urine consist of: History of malabsorption and absence of RBCs in urine upon testing. Treatment for Beeturia consists of increasing water intake and discontinuing iron pills for a week or two.
To read in detail about Beeturia, please refer to the side menu and read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER.
Renal calculi are nothing, but crystalline mineral substances, hard in nature, developing in the kidneys or urinary tract from the minerals present in the urine. Symptoms of Renal Calculi consist of severe pain, obstruction in the urine flow, back pain, hematuria, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills. Treatment for Renal Calculi consists of increased fluid intake, NSAIDs for pain, lithotripsy and other surgical procedures. Kidney stones can be confirmed by tests like urine tests, helical CT scan, intravenous pyelogram, ultrasound, x-rays and CT urography.
To read in detail about kidney stones, please read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Chyluria is a medical condition characterized by milky white urine. Parasite infection is the common cause for it. Symptoms of Chyluria, other than the milky white urine, are: Lymphatic varices, weight loss, decreased urine output, frequent urination, fever, hematuria and dysuria. Diagnosis can be made by Ether Test, Methylene Blue Test, Sudan III Test, Immunoelectrophoresis, Cystourethroscopy, and Intravenous pyelography, CT scan, MRI Scan, Ultrasonography, Lymphangiography, Lymphangioscintigraphy and Renal Biopsy. Treatment for Chyluria comprises of dietary modifications, medications like anti-filarial drugs, sclerotherapy and surgery.
Renal Artery Aneurysm is weakness in the renal artery wall resulting in localized outward bulging known as aneurysm. Causes include: Smooth muscle disease, genetic disorder, infection, trauma and surgical injury. Symptoms of renal artery aneurysm consist of: Pain, hypertension, decreased renal function, renal infarction and hematuria. Treatment is done by medications like NSAIDs, opioids, antihypertensives, embolization and surgery.
For more information on Renal Artery Aneurysm, please read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Reflux Nephropathy is a condition where there is backflow of urine into the kidneys causing a lot of damage. Causes of Reflux Nephropathy include a weak ureteral sphincter, genetic mutation, bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic bladder and it can occur as a complication from other treatments, such as radiation therapy and surgery. Symptoms of reflux nephropathy comprise of appetite loss, weight loss, fatigue, insomnia, UTI, pain, urinary incontinence, hypertension, edema, ascites and anemia. Investigations done in this condition include: Urine tests, blood tests, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, x-ray, CT scan, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram, cystogram and retrograde pyelogram. Treatment for reflux nephropathy depends on the symptoms and other medical conditions which the patient has and includes: NSAIDs or opioids for pain, antibiotics for infection, diuretics for edema etc.
For a detailed read regarding Reflux Nephropathy, please read under our KIDNEY DISEASE INFORMATION CENTER on the side menu.
Other Kidney Diseases Which are Covered in This Section:
- Renal Cell Carcinoma (Cancer of Kidney)
- Kidney Cancer
- Metabolic Acidosis
- Acute Renal Failure or Acute Kidney Injury
- Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase or APRT Deficiency
- Hereditary Nephritis or Alport Syndrome
- Renal Amyloidosis
- Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody (ANCA) Vasculitis
- Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
- Anorexia Nervosa Affecting Kidneys
- Glomerulonephritis or Glomerular Nephritis
- Acute Interstitial Nephritis (AIN)
- Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome
- Conorenal Syndrome or Mainzer-Saldino Syndrome
- Renal Cortical Necrosis (RCN)
- Crizotinib or Kinase Inhibitor Effects on Kidney
- CFHR5 Nephropathy or Troodos Nephropathy
- Cardiorenal Syndrome
- BK Polyomavirus Nephropathy
- Bile Cast Nephropathy
- C1q Nephropathy
- Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN)
- Renal Abscess
- Renal Agenesis
- Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS)
- Renal Cysts
- Renal Cell Cancer or Hypernephroma
- Renal Hypouricemia
- Renal Infarction
- Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA)
- Renal Osteodystrophy
- Fibronectin Glomerulopathy
- Fraley's Syndrome
- Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis
- Fanconi Syndrome
- IgA Nephropathy