If an amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess is left untreated, it can cause death because of the complications associated with it. It is important to seek medical attention once you notice or undergo the symptoms mentioned earlier to get treatment promptly.

Treatment of Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

Treatment of Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

There are various ways that amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess can be treated. These are:

  1. Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) for Treating Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

    Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is the best way to treat amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess. In this case, an incision is done in the patient's abdomen and a catheter is inserted in the cut to drain the abscess. This is usually a successful method that has high effective rates. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is usually the most preferred way of treatment for amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess than the surgical intervention. It is combined with medication after the drainage. It is usually a safer methods and effective treatment.

  2. Medications to Treat Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

    When treating amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess with medication, medications administered are usually antibiotics which always give successful results in treatment. However, medications should not be used independently without draining the abscess. In cases where the patient is too sick to undergo surgery, antibiotic medication is administered for months to make it effective and a patient is subjected to constant imaging to check on the progress and also further monitoring.

    Antibiotics used to treat amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess are:

    Metronidazole (Flagyl) drug is usually effective in 90 percent of most cases of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess. If a patient is resistant to Metronidazole or not responding to it, a patient should receive chlroroquine alone or it be combined with dehydroemetine or the emetine. Other antibiotics for treating amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess include:

    • Meropenem (Merrem)
    • Imipenem and cilastin (Primaxin)
    • Cefuroxime (Ceftin)
    • Cefotetan(Cefotan)
    • Cefoxitin(Mefoxin)
    • Cefaclor(Ceclor)
    • Clindamycin Cleocin)

    There are also anti-fungal agents that are effective with abscesses. Treatment for fungal abscess is amphotercin B. Lipid which is beneficial to patients.

  3. Surgery to Drain Abscess in Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

    Surgery to treat amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess is the last resort. When draining of the abscess fails, this method is usually undertaken and in cases when the abscess is overwhelming and has ruptured. Surgical intervention for amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess comes in when the abscess is complicated. There are also instances when the patient is not responding to medical therapy. Those who undergo surgery have fewer treatment failures. With surgery intervention, there are also post-operative complications that arise such as hepatic renal failure, wound infection and intra-abdominal abscess. However, it should be avoided due to its high mortality rate.

  4. Laparascopy for Treating Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

    Laparascopy can also be used for treating amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess. This entails exploring a patient's entire abdomen to reduce a patient's morbidity. This helps in locating undetected abscesses.

Duration of Treatment for Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

When treating amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess, the drug therapy should be administered two weeks after Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) has been successful. After confirmation that the abscess was successfully drained, drug therapy is recommended to be administered for 7 days. Depending with the patient, this can run up to 4 to 6 weeks. If the amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess was acute, it is always recommended that the medication or treatment to be administered until 12 weeks. If the patient is not responding to drug therapy treatment, surgical intervention becomes the alternative.

Risk Factors for Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

The risk factors for amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess includes:

  • Age. Amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess usually occurs in age groups of both male and adults of 20years of age to 45 years of age
  • Sex. Amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess has a higher predominance in males than females
  • Race. It affects all races hence anyone around the globe is prone to amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess.
  • Climate. One is at high risk of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess when travelling or residing in areas prone to poor sanitation such as developing countries or highly populated areas.
  • Family history. Amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess is not dependent on the family history as the occurrence is not pegged on genetic make up.

Other risk factors of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess include:

  • Travelling in endemic areas is a great risk factor for amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess.
  • Malnutrition, Poor sanitation is a factor of risk for amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess
  • Patients with HIV infection are more at risk for amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess.
  • Abuse of steroids
  • Alcohol abuse.

Complications Caused by Amoebic Abscess or Amoebic Liver Abscess

The abscess caused by the amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess parasite might rupture and spread into the abdomen, the linings of lungs, surroundings of the heart. The infection may also spread to the brain. Complications of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess include:

  • Sepsis is a possible complication of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess.
  • The abscess may rupture and find its way to the adjacent body parts and cause secondary infection.
  • Bowel perforation.
  • Brain abscess is a complication of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess infection.
  • Intraperitoneal, intrathoracic, or intrapericardial rupture, with or without secondary bacterial infection
  • Direct extension to pleura or pericardium
  • GI (Gastrointestinal) bleeding is another complication of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess.
  • Other complications of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess might be stricture formation, Intussusception, Peritonitis.
  • Empyema is a complication of amoebic abscess or amoebic liver abscess which is caused by the rupturing of the abscess into the chest cavity area.

Also Read:

Written, Edited or Reviewed By:

, MD, FFARCSI

Last Modified On: May 3, 2016

Pain Assist Inc.

Pramod Kerkar
  Note: Information provided is not a substitute for physician, hospital or any form of medical care. Examination and Investigation is necessary for correct diagnosis.

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