Molds grow in moisture and it is a type of fungus. They live on plant or animal matter, which they decompose for their nourishment. There are approximately 1000 types of molds out of them few are harmful to human health. These molds can affect human health outside and inside at home.
What To Do If You Are Allergic To Mold?
Avoiding Mold – If antigen has been identified then try to avoid exposure to mold environment. It can be done by removing the mold from the home. You must be cautious while performing cleaning and always wear protective clothing and equipment. The methods to remove mold from the indoor area use protective equipment like a vacuum cleaner.
If an individual is allergic to mold, it can be well-managed by pharmacological therapy.
These are the drugs useful in terminating quick relief of acute asthma. Three groups of drugs may act as bronchodilators.
Sympathomimetics. The drugs which activate the sympathetic system by activating the receptor protein present on the cell membrane. The receptors can be beta and alpha. Furthermore, the beta receptor is classified as beta1, beta-2, and beta-3.
Adrenergic drugs which activate β2 receptor act by stimulating G- Protein-Coupled Receptors that result in the activation of adenylyl cyclase and finally bronchial smooth muscle relaxation due to rise in cAMP. The inflammatory substance release from degranulated mast cells also decreases due to the accumulation of cAMP. The drugs come in the classification included are salbutamol, levalbuterol, pirbuterol, terbutaline, isoetharine, bitolterol, fenoterol, and procaterol are short-acting whereas salmeterol, formoterol, arformoterol, carmoterol, olodaterol, and indacaterol are long-acting β2 agonists.
Anticholinergics. These group of medication produce dilation of lower airways and are less efficacious and slower acting bronchodilators than sympathomimetics. Ipratropium, tiotropium, and umeclidinium are anticholinergic drugs which block anticholinergic M3 receptor which given for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by inhalational route.
Methylxanthines. This group includes theophylline, caffeine, and theobromine. The methylxanthines have adenosine receptors blocking properties along with inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the responsible substance of breakdown of cAMP. Thus, the narrowing of the air tube does not take place. At high dose, these drugs can result in the release of Ca++ from sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal and cardiac muscles. These medications have CNS stimulating properties and at toxic dose can result in tremors and convulsions.
Anti-Histaminics. This group includes cetirizine, levocetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine, rupatadine which basically inhibit the effect of histamine, secreted from degranulated mast cell. Histamine has inflammatory and bronchoconstriction response in asthma.
Mast Cell Stabilizers. Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil stabilizes the mast cell and indicated only for prophylaxis of bronchial asthma. Another drug of this group is Ketotifen has a dual action, mast cell stabilizing action and anti-histaminic action. Thus, it has not only medicinal value for treating asthma but also indicated for multiple disorders like atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, perennial rhinitis etc.
Zileuton a drug inhibits synthesis of LTB4 (chemotactic) and LTC4 and LTD4 (bronchoconstrictor) by blocking the lipoxygenase enzyme. The Limiting features of this drug are the short duration of action and hepatotoxicity.
Montelukast and zafirlukast inhibit the LTs mediated action at Cys LT1 receptor and only have prophylaxis value.
There are two types of corticosteroids one which is systemic drugs (prednisolone, prednisone) and another used as inhaled drugs (beclomethasone, budesonide, mometasone, fluticasone, flunisolide, and triamcinolone). Inhaled medication has inflammation blocking action along with hyperreactivity and mucosal edema. Anti-inflammatory action is due to decreased production of PGs and LTs.
Mold Allergy Symptoms
Mold can also trigger or aggravate asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic pneumonitis symptoms. The mold allergy symptoms are similar to have other respiratory allergies
- Malaise and fatigue
- Nasal congestion
- Runny nose
- Irritated eyes
- Watery and red eyes
- Itchy throat
These are some important medications playing a vital role in the treatment of mold-induced allergy and hypersensitivity reactions. These include anti-histamines, corticosteroids, and mast cell stabilizers. However, as prevention is better than cure, it is primarily advised to stay away from an environment that contains molds.
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