How To Diagnose Olfactory Neuroblastoma & What Is The Best Medicine For It?

Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon form of tumor that develops in the cells of the upper part of the nasal cavity (lining inside the nose). This region is close to the bone that splits the nasal cavity from the central nervous system. These cells are typically associated with the sense of smell.

It may multiply from the nasal cavity to the regions near the senses, the sinuses, the anterior portion of the head, or the lymph nodes in the collar bone. This condition is noticed in both males and females irrespective of age. ON is rarely diagnosed in infants and kids. Nevertheless, it is comparatively uncommon and only makes up about two to five percent of all cancers that arise in the interior of the nasal cavity.

How To Diagnose Olfactory Neuroblastoma?

How To Diagnose Olfactory Neuroblastoma?

The cytological examination is one of the effective methods in the diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. Based on this procedure, a 40-year-old male patient was identified with this condition. His thirteen-year-old history showed that he was suffering from adenocarcinoma and he was treated for this condition. However, thankful to modern science through which he was correctly identified for olfactory neuroblastoma. The patient’s cell showed characteristics of rosette structure, scanty elongated cytoplasm, a grouping of tissues and nuclear compression resulting in discoloration of the skin.

The clinical analysis was carried out through surgical specimens, biopsies on the lymph nodes. The results proved the presence of olfactory neuroblastoma. Further tests were done through electron microscopy which demonstrated clustered secretory granule that was membrane-bound. A multitude of metastases was revealed through autopsy and this condition was treated with increased levels of radiation therapy and systemic therapy. Although olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare form of cancer, still early diagnosis and appropriate treatment often result in better outcomes.1,2

General diagnosis of neuroblastoma includes

Physical examination

Checking on the symptoms and unusual signs you are encountering

Perform certain results such as MRI’s, CT scans to check the existence of cancer and is confirmed by the biopsy of the tumor. This is performed by getting a tissue sample and analyzing it under a microscope to ascertain what type of tumor is present.3

What Is The Best Medicine For Olfactory Neuroblastoma?

In several instances, the first line of treatment involved in a nasal cavity tumor, such as ON, is surgery to eliminate cancer. Surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of the two are usually used to treat these cancers.

Minimally Invasive Surgery- Your surgeon may perform the Expanded Endonasal Approach (EEA), an innovative surgical technique used to remove brain tumors and lesions and for the treatment of intracranial skull base disease in the pediatric population. The endonasal approach was done with a 0º 4 mm endoscope. Diagonal endoscopes were employed at the end of the process to examine the functioning area as a unit. The technique was conducted by a neurosurgeon and an otorhinolaryngologic working concurrently.

This procedure results in no incisions, shorter hospital stays and faster recovery than traditional brain surgery. EEA approaches required frontal lobe retraction and occasionally caused cosmetic and operational discrepancies.4,5

Radiation Therapy And Chemotherapy- Improved survival rates were noticed following surgery and radiation therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma. Around 500 cases were reported with this condition and they were treated through a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy followed by surgery. Among these patients, more than 70% survived with surgery however only 26% survived without surgery or radiotherapy.6

References:

  1. Olfactory Neuroblastoma Surgery, Symptoms and Treatment https://www.upmc.com/services/neurosurgery/brain/conditions/brain-tumors/olfactory-neuroblastoma
  2. Olfactory neuroblastoma – Genetic and Rare Diseases – NIH https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/2197/olfactory-neuroblastoma
  3. Olfactory Neuroblastoma | Johns Hopkins Medicine https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/olfactory-neuroblastoma
  4. Olfactory Neuroblastoma Surgery, Symptoms and Treatment https://www.upmc.com/services/neurosurgery/brain/conditions/brain-tumors/olfactory-neuroblastoma
  5. Olfactory Neuroblastoma | Symptoms and Treatments | Aurora Health care https://www.aurorahealthcare.org/services/neuroscience/brain-skull-base-care/brain-tumor/olfactory-neuroblastoma
  6. Olfactory Neuroblastoma Treated by Endoscopic Surgery Followed by Combined External Beam Radiation and Gamma Knife for Optic Nerve and Chiasm Sparing: A Case Report https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2011/765645/

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