Who Is At Risk For Oppositional Defiant Disorder & Is There A Blood Test For It?

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is a mental disorder appearing in the children represented by a continuous pattern of irritability, anger, arguing, defiance, or vindictiveness towards any authority or administrative figure. It may happen even in best-behaved children who maybe sometimes challenging and difficult to manage. (1) It is more commonly seen in boys than girls, usually at the age of 6-8 years.

Who Is At Risk For Oppositional Defiant Disorder?

The oppositional defiant disorder is a complex problem that may occur due to a combination of risk factors in a single child. (3) Possible risk factors for oppositional defiant disorder involve-

  • Family Inheritance- genetically, this disorder may be inherited in families. (3)
  • Age- children at the age of 8 years or younger are more at risk of developing this disorder. (4)
  • Sex- this disorder is more likely to affect boys than girls. (4)
  • Abusive Environment- those people who live in an abusive, neglectful, and unstable situation in the home or school are more at risk of this disorder. (4)
  • Temperament — a child who has unusual behavior related to difficulty in regulating emotions, highly emotional, over-reactive to situations or trouble tolerating frustration can develop this disorder. (1)
  • Parenting Issues — if parents exhibit abuse, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or negligent supervision over their children, then their children may develop this disorder. (1)
  • Other Family Issues — a child who has to live with a parent or family discord or he or she has a parent with a mental disorder, or substance use disorder is at high risk to develop oppositional defiant disorder. (1)
  • Associated Mental Disorders- If the child has developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, or ADHD are at increased risk of oppositional defiant disorder. (4)

Is There A Blood Test For Oppositional Defiant Disorder?

Oppositional defiant disorder is a mental disorder that cannot be detected through blood tests or other physical tests. They are usually assessed by psychiatric or psychological analysis by mental health professionals or experts.

A skilled psychiatrist or psychologist can detect oppositional defiant disorder in children and adults. They follow the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, termed as the DSM-5, which presents three main factors needed to diagnose ODD- (2)

The Patients Show A Behavioral Pattern: A person represents a persistent pattern of anger or irritable moods, argumentative or defiant behaviors, or vindictiveness. It may have a duration of a minimum of six months. During this time, they represent at least four behaviors listed in any of the following categories-

At least one of these symptoms be exhibited with someone other than a sibling-

Angry or irritable mood, which includes symptoms like:

  • Frequent loss of temper
  • touchiness
  • Easily get annoyed
  • Always angry or resentful

Argumentative or defiant behavior, which includes symptoms such as:

  • Ever indulged in constant arguments with authority figures or adults
  • Not considering requests from authority figures
  • Deliberately irritating others
  • Blaming others for misbehavior
  • Disobeying authority figures
  • Vindictiveness
  • Acting at least two times spitefully in six months

The Behavior Affects Healthy Life: It is assessed based on distress in a person’s life or their immediate social circle. The disruptive behavior may interfere with their social life, education, or occupation.

It’s Not Associated With Substance Abuse Or Mental Health Episodes: For diagnosis, the behaviors can’t appear during episodes of substance abuse, depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis (2)

Conclusion

Children who are age between 6-8 years, male, live in an abusive environment, who have parents having substance use disorder, and others mentioned above are at risk of developing oppositional defiant disorder. It cannot be detected by any blood test. It can be evaluated by DSM-5 criteria that represent three factors to assess oppositional defiant disorder.

References:

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