There are various factors that can affect urine color. These include hydration levels, foods, medical conditions, and medications. Urine color is an indicator of a person’s hydration. Sometimes person’s urine color is an indicator of an infection as well.
10 Different Urine Colors and its Indications
Pale and Transparent Color Urine
If a person has pale and transparent color urine, it may be an indication that the person is hydrated and is having enough water.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which excess urine is produced by the body. This means a person with diabetes passes excessive light-colored urine.(1) This may make them feel thirsty frequently and drink plenty of fluids.
Clear and Colorless Urine
Clear urine may indicate that a person is drinking too much water, which is altering the electrolyte balance.(2)
A diuretic may also increase urinary output. People taking diuretics may find themselves urinating frequently and the urine is mostly clear.(3)
Diabetes may also cause a person to urinate frequently, and make them drink plenty of water, making the urine appear clear.(1)
Dark Yellow Urine
Dark yellow urine may indicate dehydration and a need to drink more water.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are no recommendations on how much water a person should drink. But a person, if wishes, may drink 6-8 glasses of water per day.(4)
A light orange color urine may indicate slight dehydration and a need to increase the fluid intake slightly.
Intake of certain vitamins such as riboflavin can also make the urine appear orange.
Medication that may make the urine turn orange include:(5)
- Chemotherapy drugs
- Certain laxatives such as senna
Pink or Red Urine
Urine color may turn red or pink on eating certain foods such as beetroot, blackberries, or rhubarb.
Blood in the urine may also cause the urine to appear red. It may occur due to urinary tract infections, prostate infections, or kidney stones.(6)
Laxatives may cause the urine to turn reddish or orange.
In the case of blood in urine, consulting a doctor is important to determine the underlying cause.
Dark Orange or Brown Urine
Dark orange or brown urine may indicate that a person is not producing enough urine. This may make the urine appear darker in color.(5)
Less urine production may be due to dehydration, strenuous exercises, or a hot climate. Drinking more fluids and replacing electrolytes may help in diluting urine and make it appear lighter.
Dark urine can also be an indication of liver problems, which may lead to bilirubin in urine. High bilirubin levels in urine may indicate inflammation of the liver or other associated medical or liver conditions.
Dark Brown or Black Urine
Dark brown urine may indicate the following medical conditions.
- Rhabdomyolysis: It is a serious condition that may indicate muscle tissue death.(6) It may require immediate medical treatment.
- Liver Disease: Dark brown or black urine may also be an indication of a liver condition
- Alkaptonuria: It is also known as a black urine disease. It stops the body from breaking down two types of amino acids.
Blue or Green Urine
According to the urology care foundation, there are certain medications or foods that may contain large amounts of food dye, causing the urine to get blue or green in color.(5)
Green urine may also be an indication of a urinary tract infection.
Cloudy urine can be a sign of a urinary tract infection. Along with the urine being cloudy other symptoms of urinary tract infection may include:
- Foul-smelling urine
- Increase in urine frequency
- Pain and burning sensation while urinating
White and Milky Urine
White and milky urine may be due to chyluria, a condition in which a milky substance that is made during digestion is present in urine.
White or milky urine may also occur due to parasitic infection that affects the lymphatic system.
A person should contact a doctor if the change in the color of urine is not due to eating foods or taking medications. A doctor can conduct a urine test to identify the abnormal substance in the urine. This can be helpful in determining the underlying cause of the changes.