The multiple tiny papules that appear are the result of an inflammation is managed by a group of white blood cells called “T lymphocytes”. Usually, these blood cells work to cure diseases or injuries, such as a cut on the finger. Doctors and researchers do not know what causes T lymphocytes to activate in this pathology.
Lichen nitidus is a rare and chronic inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by the formation of multiple tiny papules that are referred to as lichenoid rashes. It is a benign skin condition that usually affects children of preschool and school age.
Lichen nitidus lichenoid eruptions often occur on the surface of the skin in the areas of the flexors of the forearms, back of the hands, chest, abdomen, and genitals. Small injuries, however, can also occur in the other areas of the body and may involve the face.
No mortality or morbidity is being associated with lichen nitidus is generally a benign disease and does not cause complications. The condition of the skin is known to affect both boys and girls, although it has been found to have a slight predominance among girls. It can affect people all over the world and without racial predilection. The disease is prevalent among preschoolers and school-age children, including young adults, but it can also occur in older adults.
Lichen is not a life-threatening disease that resolves on its own without the need for treatment. The incidence is not potential for skin cancer and rarely causes discomfort while being left without long-lasting or lifelong effect on the skin.
What Causes Lichen Nitidus?
The cause of lichen nitidus disease is unknown. The lichen nitidus disease is the result of an unusual inflammatory activity where T lymphocytes are involved. The incidence of lichen nitidus is also being linked to lichen planus, although there has been no clear indication of the relationship between the two.
The exact cause of lichen nitidus remains unclear, although several diseases are associated with the incidence of lichen nitidus.
The small papules of lichen nitidus are known as lichen eruption and have various clinical variants such as:
Generalized: Clear lichen rarely occurs in children and is an even rarer variant.
Hemorrhagic or Lichen Purpuric Nitidus: It is characterized by an unusual rash replicating a pigment purpuric papule and initially develops on the upper part of the feet and around the ankle before it progresses to the legs until it becomes generalized.
Vesicular: Which are usually located in the palm of the hands.
Linear Lichen Nitidus: It is a variant that is arranged in the form of a line.
Keratodermic: Lichen nitidus involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet and looks similar to the cracking in chronic eczema.
Lichen Nitidus Perforated: They are presented by umbilicated papules that usually develop on the forearms and hands.
Actinic: Lichen develops in areas of the skin that are in constant exposure to the sun and is common among people with dark skin and the eruption of the lesion is seasonal usually during the summer months.
The Papules or Lesions of Lichen Nitidus Are Characterized By The Following:
-The size of the papule is about 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter or similar to the size of a pinhead.
-The shape of the lesion is round to polygonal.
-The color of the papule is skin tone and rarely yellowish or brownish, although it may appear as hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation in people with dark skin.
-The upper part of the lesion is flat and the lesion appears bright.
-The lesion appears in clusters that can later fuse to form a plaque.
-The development of the lesion is usually localized and rarely occurs as generalized.
Lichen nitidus can also develop in the mouth and the papules are described as small, flat, gray-white papules that appear within the buccal mucosa. It appears on the tongue as hard white plates and resembles the appearance of lichen planus.
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