What Are Myxoid Cysts?
Myxoid Cysts develop due to chronic degeneration of connective tissues at the top of the fingers. These cysts may also connect to the joint of the fingers. These cysts have round surface and are shiny in appearance. Usually Myxoid Cysts are found at the base of the nail and tend to cause a depression in the nail. At times, these cysts can also develop within the nail bed. When this occurs there is discoloration of the nails along with formation of depression in the nail. The size of the cyst is variable and it consists of a jelly like fluid filled in it which is normally colorless but at times may be blood tinged.
What Causes Myxoid Cysts?
There are two theories which are suggested as to the cause of Myxoid Cysts. The first theory suggests abnormal deposition of mucins in the skin resulting in formation of Myxoid Cysts. As a matter of fact Myxoid Cysts are not true cysts, but in fact is a pseudocyst. Another theory is that these cysts are formed due to extension of the lining of the finger joints due to medical condition called osteoarthritis.
What Are The Symptoms Of Myxoid Cysts?
Myxoid Cysts normally develop in the fingers and are found in the base of the nail either to the left or the right side. At times, these cysts develop within the nail or can also involve the nail root and when this occurs there is discoloration of the nails. On rare occasions, the fat pads of the fingers are also involved. As stated, these cysts are round in shape and shiny in appearance. These cysts are fluid filled which is normally colorless, but at times can also be blood tinged.
How Is Myxoid Cysts Diagnosed?
Since Myxoid Cysts are clearly visible, there are no particular tests in order to diagnose these cysts. The treating physician will begin by taking a history as to the duration of the cyst. The physician will then conduct a physical examination of the affected finger looking for discoloration of the nails. In some cases if the lump is really big then imaging studies in the form of x-rays, CT scan or an MRI may be performed to look at the adjoining structures looking for any sort of damage caused due to the cysts.
How Is Myxoid Cysts Treated?
Majority of the Myxoid Cysts resolve on their own and do not require any particular treatment. In case of the cysts are large enough then there are quite a few options which can be used for treating such cysts. Some of the treatment options of Myxoid Cysts are:
Aspiration of Myxoid Cyst: In this procedure a needle is inserted in the cyst after application of a local anesthetic and the fluid is aspirated out. Post aspiration steroid is injected in the Myxoid cyst so as to prevent recurrence
Cryosurgery For Removing Myxoid Cyst: This is another form of treatment for Myxoid Cysts in which the cyst is frozen using nitrous oxide and then removed.
Surgery For Removal of Myxoid Cyst: If these measures are not found to be effective then the only other option is to excise the cyst in its entirety.
Even though an individual may have the cyst removed or it may resolve spontaneously but since these cysts have a high recurrence rate it is not surprising that the patient may have a recurrence of the Myxoid Cyst.