Reviewed By: Pramod Kerkar, MD, FFARCSI

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare disease commonly seen in women in their 20’s and 30’s, it’s also seen in children as well.

How Common Is Mixed Connective Tissue Disease?

A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota carried out on 50 patients with incident mixed connective tissue disease from 1985 to 2014 showed that mixed connective tissue disease occurred in about 2 persons per 100,000 per year. 84% of the patients with mixed connective tissue disease were females. The most common initial symptoms were Raynaud’s phenomenon (50%), then arthralgia (30%) and thirdly swollen hands (16%). The diagnosis was delayed about 3.6 years after the initiation of the first symptom. After the fulfillment criteria arthralgia was the most common symptom (86%), followed by Raynaud’s phenomenon (80%), swollen hands (64%), leukopenia/lymphopenia (44%), and heartburn (38%). Evolution into other connective tissue disorders occurred infrequently with 10-year rate of evolution of 8.5% in systemic lupus erythematosus and 6.3% in systemic scleroderma.

A population-based study done in Norway had a total of 147 patients with mixed connective tissue disease and 113 were females, the female to male ratio is 3.3. The common clinical manifestations reported were Raynaud’s phenomenon (99%), swollen hands (93%), arthritis (79%), and esophageal dysmotility (50%). Fifteen patients in the study was diagnosed before 18 years of age, there were 4 patients who were aged 9 years when they were diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease. The remaining 132 patients had adult-onset mixed connective tissue disease and the mean age of diagnosis was 37.9 years. Most of the adult patients had their initial symptom at a mean age of 31.5 years and they were diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease at a mean age of 35.1 years. The point prevalence rate of mixed connective tissue disease in Norway is 3.8 cases per 100,000 adult population and the annual incidence rate is about 2.1 per million.

A study done on American Indian and Alaska Native adults showed the prevalence is 6.4 per 100,000. An epidemiological survey carried in Japan revealed the mixed connective tissue disease prevalence is 2.7 cases per 100,000 populations.

Mixed connective tissue disease does not involve any specific race; it is reported in all races. The symptoms and signs are also similar in all ethnic groups, however one study observed differences in the frequency of end organ damage in different ethnic groups.

Mixed connective tissue disease is more common in females and the estimated female to male ratio may vary from 3:1 to 16:1. Mixed connective tissue disease is seen between the age group 15-25 years but can occur at any age, some forms of mixed connective tissue disease are seen even in children.

Conclusion

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare disease. A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota carried out on 50 patients with incident mixed connective tissue disease from 1985 to 2014 showed that MCTD occurred in about 2 persons per 100,000 per year. 84% of the patients with mixed connective tissue disease were females. A study done on American Indian and Alaska Native adults showed the prevalence is 6.4 per 100,000. An epidemiological survey carried in Japan revealed the mixed connective tissue disease prevalence is 2.7 cases per 100,000 populations. The point prevalence rate of mixed connective tissue disease in Norway is 3.8 cases per 100,000 adult population, the annual incidence rate is about 2.1 per million and the female to male ratio is 3.3. Mixed connective tissue disease does not involve any specific race, it is reported in all races. The symptoms and signs are also similar in all ethnic groups. Mixed connective tissue disease is more common in females and the estimated female to male ratio may vary from 3:1 to 16:1. Mixed connective tissue disease is seen between the age group 15-25 years but can occur at any age, some forms of mixed connective tissue disease are seen even in children.

Also Read:

Pramod Kerkar

Written, Edited or Reviewed By:

, MD,FFARCSI

Pain Assist Inc.

Last Modified On: February 8, 2019

This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer

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