Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been divided into two parts i.e. Amnestic MCI and Non-amnestic MCI. The symptoms of mild cognitive impairment depend upon the type of MCI present in the patient.
What Are The Symptoms Of Mild Cognitive Impairment?
Depression. Patients with mild cognitive impairment are at high risk of developing depression. Depression also plays a role in the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Almost 32% of patients with mild cognitive impairment have the symptom of depression.
Anxiety. Anxiety is the common symptoms in the patient suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Anxiety in these patients is increased due to the memory problem and risk of public embarrassment.
Memory Problems. Memory problem is the primary feature of mild cognitive impairment. The person with mild cognitive impairment has a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. The people with mild cognitive impairment have significantly higher memory problems as compared to people with a similar age.
Poor Concentration. Mild cognitive impairment also results in poor concentration. It may be due to the reduced flow of blood in the brain. As the blood supply is reduced, the energy level of the neurons decreases leading to poor concentration.
Anger And Irritability. The patient with mild cognitive impairment has poor emotional health. These people have difficulty in managing their anger and impulsiveness. They get easily irritated and have impulsive actions.
Apathy. Apathy is the condition which occurs when the mild cognitive impairment is progressing in Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, patients with apathy as a symptom in mild cognitive impairment are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Poor Decision Making. The ability of the person suffering from mild cognitive impairment has cognitive decline. The condition is characterized by reduced leaning and thinking skills. The ability of the patient to take a logical decision is reduced.
Social Isolation. The patient with mild cognitive impairment develops social isolation. The patient feels uncomfortable in public places and does not able to talk to other people. Social isolation further increases the severity of symptoms such as depression and anxiety.
Reduced Mental Ability. The patient with mild cognitive impairment has reduced mental ability. The patient feels difficult to perform routine activities.
Mild Cognitive Impairment Subgroups
Mild cognitive impairment is the condition present in patients who have to reduce memory but does not attain the threshold for dementia. On the basis of memory deficit and deficiency of other cognitive functions, mild cognitive impairment has been divided into following subgroups.
- Memory Function Deficit. In this type of mild cognitive impairment, there is a reduced memory function, but this reduction does not hamper the routine activities. The patient suffering from memory deficit make note of important things to make up the reduced memory function.
- Memory And Another Cognitive Function Deficit. Apart from the memory reduction, the patients categorized in this sub-group also have reduced cognitive functions. These include poor concentration and reduced learning skills. The patient also has impairment in executive skills and visuospatial skills.
- Single Non-memory Cognitive Domain Deficit. In this subgroup, the patient does not have memory problems rather the cognitive function other than memory is impaired. Only a single non-memory domain is affected. The non-memory domain includes learning, concentration, thinking, decision making, execution, and visuospatial skills.
- Multiple Non-memory Cognitive Domain Deficit. In this subgroup, the memory of the patient is at the level similar to the healthy counterpart of similar age, but the multiple non-memory cognitive domains are affected.
Mild cognitive impairment, if not managed, leads to various complications. Mild cognitive impairment may either reverse or progresses into more severe form. The complications of the disease may include Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and Parkinson’ disease. Mild cognitive impairment does not severely hamper the life of the patient but when progress into Alzheimer’s disease, the condition has a poor prognosis.
Various symptoms associated with mild cognitive impairment include reduced memory, depression, anxiety, social isolation, apathy, poor decision making, and poor emotional health.
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