Isolated PAPVR was diagnosed based on CT imaging findings and your doctor may suggest surgery to fix your complication1.
Echocardiographic diagnosis is an assessment using ultrasound to demonstrate the working of the heart muscles and the valves.2
Echocardiography is a painful test that creates moving pictures of your heart and produces specific value in diagnosing and classification.3, 4
What Is Echocardiographic Diagnosis Of PAPVR?
The heart murmur is generally diagnosed with the aid of an echocardiographic device. Echocardiographic diagnosis is an assessment using ultrasound to demonstrate the working of the heart muscles and the valves. The device checks how your heart chambers and valves are pumping the oxygen-rich red blood to the heart.
The device makes use of an electrode which has the potential to determine the heart rhythm along with an ultrasound to see the movement of blood. This is one of the best profound techniques to help diagnose your heart conditions.2
A study was conducted on 84 patients to evaluate different types of anomalous pulmonary venous connections. All the procedures and data analyses were performed based on the guidelines and these patients were recommended surgery. The patient group composed of 46 men and 38 women and they were in the age group between 23 days to 55 years.
All these subjects were evaluated by transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography (detecting retinal veins occlusion in cardiac disease patients) and Doppler echocardiography (examine blood flow velocity with red blood cells). Echocardiography is a painful test that creates moving pictures of your heart and produces specific value in diagnosing and classification. The test showed multiple pictures of the pulmonary veins parasternal, suprasternal, and nonstandard views. The results showed the existence of abnormality and obstruction of the cardiovascular lesions.
Although fetal, echocardiography is the preferred examination for the demonstration of the enlarged right ventricle and improved the overall detection of TAPVR or PAPVR. The average gestational age at the time of diagnosis is between 25-28 weeks. However, when patients have poor acoustic windows echocardiography diagnosis becomes difficult. In pediatric patients, PAPVR is usually treated with the surgical correction to produce potential diversion of blood flow.3,4
Anomalous pulmonary venous return is a congenital heart defect (present since the time of birth) involving a left-to-right shunt where one or more, but not all, pulmonary veins drain into a systemic vein or the right atrium.
When the veins function normally, the vein is sent from the right ventricle to collect oxygen from the lungs and transfer the blood to the left ventricle through the pulmonary veins. PAPVR is often associated with a sinus venosus ASD (atrial septal defect).
Diagnosis Of PAPVR
The complication is due to the incorrect attachment of the pulmonary vein to the heart’s right atrium and its associated blood vessels. In general, the pulmonary vein should be connected to the left atrium for the correct pumping of blood into the heart.
Medical studies have identified that some patients may also have a hole between the upper heart chambers. During such cases, these patients will experience congenital cardiovascular problems. The diagnosis of PAPVR is often based on your signs and symptoms.
Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam and check for your heartbeat rhythm using the stethoscope. Isolated PAPVR was diagnosed based on CT imaging findings and your doctor may suggest surgery to fix your complication.1
- Sears, Edmund H, et al. “Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Presenting with Adult-Onset Pulmonary Hypertension.” Pulmonary Circulation, Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3401879/.
- Zhang, Ziming, et al. “Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connections: Experience of 84 Cases from 1 Medical Center.” Medicine, Wolters Kluwer Health, Nov. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5591171/.
- Olsen, Richelle, et al. “Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return.” Wiley Online Library, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 28 Apr. 2016, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.7863/ultra.15.04041
- “Congenital Heart Disease in Adults.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 14 May 2020, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/partial-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-return/cdc-20385691.