What Is The Best Medicine For Mitral Valve Disease?
- In mitral valve disease, there are no best medicines which can help in restoring the functioning of a leaking valve; the medicines can only help in improving symptoms.
- Doctors prefer to repair the valve instead of replacing them. Repairing of valve helps in preserving the function and strength of your heart and decrease the risk of post-surgery infective endocarditis.
- The commonly prescribed medicines in mitral valve disease are ACE inhibitors, antiarrhythmic medicines, antibiotics, beta blockers, diuretics, and vasodilators.
- Vasodilators help in relaxing the blood vessel, reducing high blood pressure and preventing the flow of blood in the backward direction from leaky valves and prevents the heart failure.
- Antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed to restore a normal heart rhythm.
- Antibiotics are prescribed to prevent infections.
- Anticoagulants help to prevent blood clots as it prevents strokes and heart failure.
- Beta blockers are also prescribed to slow the heartbeat and reduce palpitations.
- Diuretics are prescribed to reduce the amount of fluid in the tissues and bloodstream decreasing the workload on the heart.
Repair The Damaged Mitral Valve
One of the options to repair mitral valve stenosis is balloon valvuloplasty. The valve opening is shortened because of thickening of the surrounding tissues. Balloon valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where there are less pain and blood loss. It also provides the advantage of reducing the risk of infection when compared to other surgical procedures. In this method, an expandable balloon is attached to a catheter and directed towards the impaired valve and expanded near the stenosis. The expanded valve prevents the resistance to flow of blood. Balloon valvuloplasty may not be a good option for people suffering from mitral regurgitation where the valve is leaky.
In order to treat mitral regurgitation, the surgeons try to shape and rebuild the valve such that it opens and closes tightly. A cloth, tissue on metal is stitched around the valve to tighten and stop leakage of blood in the backward direction. The procedure can be performed by making a small incision on the chest or other minimally invasive procedures. In certain cases, mitraclip is also attached to mitral valve to allow closing of the valve completely.
Mitral Valve Replacement
At times the repair of the mitral valve is not possible and the symptomatic treatment may not always be a good option as the condition of the heart worsens, in such cases the replacement of valves becomes mandatory. The replacement of valves can be by means of mechanical or biological valves.
The mechanical valves are the durable and long lasting type and are made of carbon and titanium. The disadvantage of using this valve is, blood thinning agents are required throughout the life to prevent the risk of formation of blood clots in the valve flaps or Hinges.
Biological valves or bioprosthetic valves are made from tissues of an animal. These valves can last for about 10 to 20 years and are required to be replaced in future. These types of valves do not require anticoagulant medicines.
Mitral Valve Disease Types
The heart is responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to all parts of the body. Mitral valve disease is a condition where there is impairment in the flow of blood from left atrium to the left ventricle. There are different types of mitral valve diseases:
Atresia. It is a congenital birth defect wherein the mitral valve is not formed correctly resulting in improper flow of blood in the left ventricle. The condition can be treated by a number of staged surgeries in infants.
Mitral Valve Regurgitation. It is one of the most common heart valve disorders wherein the blood does not flow from left atrium to the left ventricle instead the blood flows in the backward direction.
Mitral Stenosis. It refers to the narrowing of the heart valve preventing the flow of blood into the ventricles.
Depending on the patients’ health status, mitral valve repair or replacement is performed. Medicines are given only for symptomatic treatment.
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