What Is The Structure And Function Of The Human Heart?

The human heart is the central part and organ of the circulatory system, and the primary work of this vital organ is pumping the blood throughout the body along with oxygen and nutrients. The heart is a lump of muscle that works on the mechanism made possible by different body parts operating together. The entire system includes complex pathways of arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart pumps the blood and nutrients and also removes the metabolic wastes! Learning about the body’s anatomy is essential to learn about the dysfunctions and abnormalities.

What Is The Structure And Function Of The Human Heart?

Structure of The Human Heart

The heart is found in the center of the chest under the sternum within a thoracic compartment. The lump of muscle has four chambers and numbers of valves. The structure of the heart regulates the normal blood flow throughout the body.

The upper two sections of the human heart are called atria, which receives oxygen-free blood. Atrioventricular valves separate the two chambers. The valves compose tricuspid valve on the left side, and the mitral valve is on the right side.

The lower two sections or chambers in the heart are ventricles. These two sections pump oxygen-enriched blood throughout the body including the smallest cells. The semilunar valves separate the two chambers. The valves compose pulmonary valve and aortic valve.

The human heart has a wall made up of three layers. Epicardium is the outer layer which is thin, the Myocardium is the middle layer which is thick, and Endocardium is the inner layer which is thin. The heart’s structure is very complex, and the complex structure operates the mechanism allowing the blood to get distributed throughout the body and return to the heart.

The heart facilitates the continuous process of pumping and receiving the blood with two types of blood vessels, i.e., arteries and veins. The arteries bring oxygen-rich blood from the human heart and distribute to the cells, and the veins bring oxygen-free blood back to the heart from different body parts. The largest artery Aorta functions in the left ventricle and is the main artery. The main artery further divides into two small arteries called Iliac Arteries.

The entire system together functions regularly and supply a sufficient amount of blood and oxygen to the body parts.

The Function Of The Human Heart

The human heart is the vital organ controlling the circulatory system. The complex structure of the entire system circulates the blood and transports oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. The heart controls the continuous function. The continuous process of pumping blood is the cardiac cycle. The cardiac cycle ensures the distribution of blood throughout the body.

The distribution of oxygen begins when the oxygen-free blood enters the heart through the right atrium and moves to the right ventricle. The oxygen-free blood enters the lungs to refill oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The oxygen filled blood transfers to the left chambers and is ready for redistribution.

The human heart pumps around 5.6 liters of blood that circulates throughout the body. The heart completes three cardiac cycles within a minute. The continuous cardiac cycle helps to protect the body as well as regulate the body temperature.


A normal adult human’s heart beats 72 times in a minute. But, the heartbeat rate of children is higher! Examining the pulse rate is a physical way of determining the continuous functioning of the heart. Measuring the blood-pressure and detecting the systole and diastole is essential for the physicians for proper healthcare tips! Individuals must not ignore any health issues related to the heart. Consulting a certified doctor and conducting the related tests is essential to maintain a proper health condition.

Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA
Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA
Written, Edited or Reviewed By: Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA Pain Assist Inc. This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer
Last Modified On:December 23, 2023

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