What Is The Difference Between Graves’ Disease And Hashimoto’s Disease?

Graves’ disease and Hashimoto disease are the autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland. Graves’ disease is a disease of thyroid gland characterized by increase in the thyroid stimulating autoantibodies related to TSH receptor (TSHR). These antibodies mimic the action of TSH resulting in the activation of TSH receptor. Hashimoto’s disease is as thyroid disease characterized by the attack of immune system on the thyroid gland by the excess production of antibodies named thyroid peroxidase (TPO) that can lead the destruction of the thyroid proteins thyroglobulin.

What Is The Difference Between Graves’ Disease And Hashimoto's Disease?

What Is The Difference Between Graves’ Disease And Hashimoto’s Disease?

The thyroid gland is bi-lobed butterfly-shaped organ located at the neck. Its main work is to utilize body’s energy and influence almost every organ of the body. When sufficient thyroid hormone is not produced by the thyroid gland, many of the body function become sluggish.

Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s disease are both autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland, but both have different clinical manifestations.

Graves’ Disease

It is marked by a hyperactive immune system that leads to the production of antibodies related to TSH receptor. TSH does not stimulate T3 and T4 hormones resulting in the negative feedback in the body and slow sympathetic nervous system activity. The antibodies constantly stimulate thyroid cells to produce more and more T3 and T4 hormones leading to the enlargement of the thyroid gland and the symptom termed as Goiter.

Hashimoto’s Disease

It is marked by the excess production of antibodies named thyroid peroxidase (TPO) that can lead to the destruction of the thyroid proteins thyroglobulin. Large quantities of lymphocytes get to build in the thyroid gland as a part of an attack on the immune system and they release increased quantities of antibodies. With the destruction of the thyroid hormones, thyroid gland gets damaged. Thus, the function of the thyroid gland becomes sluggish and metabolism is hampered due to insufficient secretion of the thyroid hormones.

The Difference Between Graves’ Disease And Hashimoto’s Disease Can Be Understood By The Following

#1 Graves’ disease is acute onset of thyroid disease which causes hyperthyroidism and the patient needs immediate management of the symptoms with medicines.

Hashimoto’s disease is the progressive disease of the thyroid gland that induces hypothyroidism with gradual damage to the gland and treatment needs thyroid hormone supplement throughout the life.

#2 Graves’ disease is basically autoimmune hyperthyroidism whereas Hashimoto’s disease is autoimmune hypothyroidism.

#3 Graves’ disease has rare occurrence whereas Hashimoto’s disease is common.

#4 In Graves’ disease TSH level drops significantly down with rising in levels of T3 and T4 levels whereas, in Hashimoto’s disease, TSH levels get elevated.

#5 Graves’ disease is marked by panic attacks whereas Hashimoto’s disease has gradual manifestations.

#6 Exophthalmos is a key symptom of Graves’ disease whereas Hashimoto’s disease does not have this symptom. Exophthalmos is external protrusion of the eyes due to the widening of the eyes by retraction of upper eyelids and deposition of fat and muscles around the eyes leading to swelling of eyes pushing it forward.

#7 The symptoms of Graves’ disease are weight loss, irregular heartbeats at rest, heat intolerance and heavy perspiration, whereas the symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, slow heart rate, fatigue, cold intolerance and dry skin and hair.

#8 Diagnosis of the Graves’ disease is established by high levels of T3 and T4 levels and low TSH level and antibodies of TSH receptors in the blood whereas the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s disease can be made by high levels of TSH and antibodies named thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the blood.

#9 Graves’ disease is treated with beta blockers, antithyroid medicines or radioactive iodine whereas Hashimoto’s disease is managed with supplemental thyroid hormones.

Conclusion

Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s disease both are an autoimmune disease which is clinically different and opposite. Graves’ disease trigger hyperthyroidism and Hashimoto’s disease trigger hypothyroidism. Grave’s disease induce panic attacks of the thyroid gland requiring urgent medical attention whereas Hyperthyroidism has gradual onset to be managed with thyroid hormone supplements.

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