Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Home Remedies
Primary Hyperparathyroidism- This is a medical condition which is mainly characterized by production of excessive parathyroid hormones in the body resulting in various symptoms.
What Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism?
Hyperparathyroidism as stated is a medical condition in which there is excessive production of parathyroid hormone. There are four parathyroid glands in the body located in the neck. The function of the parathyroid hormone is to control calcium in the body. In Primary Hyperparathyroidism, there is enlargement of parathyroid glands causing excessive production of parathyroid hormone with resultant elevated levels of calcium, a medical condition called as Hypercalcemia. Primary Hyperparathyroidism is usually treated with surgery.
What Are The Causes Of Primary Hyperparathyroidism?
- Primary Hyperparathyroidism is caused due to enlargement of one or more of parathyroid glands.
- The basic cause of enlargement can be a benign growth on the gland
- Hyperplasia of parathyroid glands can also cause Primary Hyperparathyroidism
- Primary Hyperparathyroidism is rarely caused by a malignant tumor
What Are The Risk Factors For Primary Hyperparathyroidism?
Some Of The Risk Factors For Primary Hyperparathyroidism Are:
- Menopausal female
- Individual with chronic deficiency of calcium and vitamin D
- In instances of radiation treatment for some type of cancer where the neck was exposed to radiation
- It can also be caused to taking lithium which is medication commonly used to treat bipolar disorder
What Are The Symptoms Of Primary Hyperparathyroidism?
Some Of The Symptoms Of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Are:
- Development of osteoporosis
- Kidney stones
- Excessive urination
- Pain in the abdomen
- Weakness and fatigue
- Pain in the bones and joints
- Falling ill frequently
- Loss of appetite
How Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism Diagnosed?
To diagnose Primary Hyperparathyroidism, the treating physician will order the following tests:
- Blood Tests: This test will indicate elevated calcium levels. Elevated calcium levels can be caused due to various other conditions as well thus the physician will also check a parathyroid hormone level and an elevation of that will point to a diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
- After confirming the diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism the treating physician may order the following tests to look at the extent of the disease process:
- Bone Densitometry: This test will be done to measure the strength of the bone
- Urine Test: This test will be done to monitor the function of the kidneys and also look for any kidney dysfunction which may be causing Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
What Are The Treatments For Primary Hyperparathyroidism?
There is no treatment required for Primary Hyperparathyroidism if:
- Calcium is elevated very slightly
- Renal functions are normal
- Bone density is normal
Apart from the wait and watch approach, to treat Primary Hyperparathyroidism surgery is most preferred approach. A surgical procedure has a success rate of approximately 95% in cases of Primary Hyperparathyroidism. The surgical procedure involves removal of the enlarged thyroid gland. The surgery is usually done as an outpatient procedure and does not require inpatient setting.
Some of the inherent risks of the procedure are:
- Damage to nerves of the vocal cords
- Persistently reduced calcium levels requiring use of supplementation
Home Remedies For Primary Hyperparathyroidism
- Regular monitoring of calcium and vitamin D intake in the diet
- Intake of adequate amounts of fluids
- Regular exercises for healthy and strong bones
- Smoking cessation
- Avoidance of medications which can increase calcium levels in the body