What is Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease?

There are numerous diseases that only affect the human blood. Those diseases that only affect the most important liquid in the human beings which is blood, are called hematological diseases. One of the rarest hematological diseases this article will be devoted to is Factor V deficiency or Owren's Disease. This extremely rare hematological disorder either results in prolonged or slow clotting of the blood after an injury or surgical procedure.

Just like the other name of Owren’s disease suggests, this illness has to do something with a protein called Factor V. This protein is also known under the name proaccelerin. Proaccelerin is a protein that is made up in the liver. This protein helps in the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin. This conversion is an essential part of the blood clotting process. However, if there is not enough of Factor V, your blood will clot with a great difficulty. Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease was described by a well-known and appreciated medical doctor Paul Owren. Thus, this disease is called Owren’s disease. Dr. Paul Owren had first described this illness in 1943 in one Norwegian patient.

Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is so rare that is has been estimated that it will affect only one person per million people. What also needs to be said about Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is that it is a genetic disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive way. This means that both of child’s parents need to have Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease to pass it onto their child and the future offspring. Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease affects both the women and the men equally.

Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

What is Factor V in Blood?

Factor V is a protein that acts as a catalyst. It accelerates the process by which prothrombin becomes converted to thrombin, which is an essential and initial step in the formation of blood clots. Factor V is created in the liver.

What can Factor V Cause?

Factor V that becomes impaired can cause numerous issues with the health of the human blood. The two most common hematological diseases the impairment of Factor V causes are Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease, and Factor V Leiden. Factor V Leiden is also known under its other name Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia.

Factor V Deficiency Vs. Factor V Leiden

Factor V Deficiency and Factor V Leiden are two totally different illnesses. Factor V Leiden is also called Factor V Leiden Thrombophillia. Unlike Factor V Deficiency Disorder, Factor V Leiden can only be inherited, not acquired.

Also, Factor V Deficiency makes a person who suffers from it would barely be able to get the blood clotted. On the other hand, the people who suffer from Factor V Leiden have an increased blood clotting, which is known as hypercoagulabilty. Population that has Factor V Leiden is at a very high risk of developing giant and abnormal blood clots that can lead to stroke or heart attack. Factor V Deficiency can occur in the people of any race and/or gender. However, on the other hand, Factor V Leiden is almost entirely a disease of the European population. Almost 30% of people that were diagnosed with Pulmonary Embolism will also be diagnosed with Factor V Leiden.

Causes of Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

As it was said before, Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is an extremely rare hematological disease. This disease is either inherited from both of the parents in an autosomal recessive fashion or acquired by a person after its birth. Acquired Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is caused by either by an underlying medical condition, certain medical drugs, or by an autoimmune reaction.

Medical conditions that might be a ground for the development of acquired Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease are the following:

  • Liver diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver and Hepatitis C and B can cause Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also causes Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease. It is a medical condition that is known to cause small blood clots and also excessive bleeding, which happens due to overly active clotting proteins.
  • Another cause of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is secondary fibrinolysis, which is a disorder which is characterized by the inability of fibrin clots to break down.
  • Autoimmune diseases such as lupus, amyloidosis, Kawasaki disease, and numerous other autoimmune diseases.
  • Several types of cancer can lead to Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease.
  • Spontaneous post-surgery autoimmune reactions.
  • Spontaneous post-childbirth autoimmune reactions.

People who were treated with certain types of fibrin glue can also get this disorder. At rare instances, the cause of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is unknown. This hematological illness resembles Hemophilia. However, persons who have Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease do not bleed into their joints, as it is the case with the people that suffer from Hemophilia.

Symptoms of Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

The symptoms of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease are usually very mild. The levels of Factor V can drop to only 20% percent in the blood and still do not cause any serious problems with the clotting of blood. However, that level of Factor V in the blood will make the blood clot a little bit slower.

There are also symptoms of severe Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease that include:

  • Abnormal bleeding under the skin.
  • Abnormal bleeding after giving a birth to a child can be a symptom of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease.
  • Abnormal bleeding after being injured.
  • Abnormal bleeding after having a surgery.
  • Bleeding gums.
  • Nasal bleeding.
  • Bruising easily.
  • Prolonged and heavy periods.

Factor V Deficiency and Pregnancy

A pregnant mother that suffers from Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease usually does not have any problems during pregnancy. However, the mother that has Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease can pass it on her child if the father of her child also has this disease.

After giving a birth to her baby, a woman with this disease sometimes experiences severe and abnormal bleeding that have to be put under control by medical professionals such as hematologists and gynecologists.

Factor V Deficiency and Anesthesia

People who have severe Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease and are scheduled to undergo a surgery must be aware of the fact that they could lose a lot of their blood, which could be life-threatening. However, since anesthesiologists will be introduced to the fact that you have this condition, they will order donated blood for you in case start losing blood severely.

Tests to Diagnose Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

If your hematologist suspects that you might have this disorder, he/she will order you to have a few tests. The diagnosis of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is made through tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test, thrombin clotting time (TCT) test, and prothrombin time (PT) test.

The final diagnosis of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is made through Factor V Assay.

Treatment for Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

Once a person is diagnosed with severe Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease, it must start with a treatment immediately. People that have mild form of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease usually need precautionary treatment.

The common treatment options for this illness are desmopressin, a nasal spray given to a person before surgery and dental procedures, then fresh frozen blood plasma or fresh blood plasma.

Home Remedies for Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

Homemade cooking that is abundant in blood-building foods is the best home remedy for treating Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease.

Diet for Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

Persons that suffer from Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease are advised to follow diet plans rich with foods that build blood. That food includes the following:

  • Red Meat.
  • Legumes.
  • Molasses.
  • Seeds.
  • Fish.
  • Bananas.
  • Whole Grains.
  • Asparagus.
  • Brussel Sprouts.
  • Lettuce.

Prevention of Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

Sadly, there is no special way one can prevent getting this illness. Luckily, Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is an extremely rare disease.

Risk Factors for Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

The biggest risk factor of getting Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is the genetic factor. Children whose both parents were diagnosed in the past with Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease are at the higher risk of getting this hematological disease since it is transmitted from a mother to a child in an autosomal recessive fashion.

People who have certain autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, are also at a risk of developing Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease. Several cancers can also induce the development of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease. Women who had difficult childbirth, in which they had lost a lot of blood are also at a risk of getting this hematological illness. Persons who have a family history of hemophilia can also develop Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease.

Complications of Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

If an underlying Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is not treated, it can cause various complications. The most serious complications of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease that could lead to death are stroke and heart attack.

One other serious complication of Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is hemorrhage or excessive bleeding both inside and outside the body.

Prognosis/Outlook for Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

The overall prognosis for Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease is good if treatment for that disease is incorporated in time.

Lifestyle Changes for Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

No special lifestyle changes have to be made by people who suffer from Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease. This people only have to eat foods that build blood and to avoid accidents, in which they could lose a lot of blood.

Coping with Factor V Deficiency or Owren's Disease

People have a hard time whenever they hear they have a certain illness. This also applies to the people with Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease. The best way to cope with this disease is to talk about it with family and friends.

There are also organizations present all around the world such as American National Hemophilia Foundation where you can hang out with other people who suffer from Factor V deficiency or Owren's disease and share your experiences with the illness.

Also Read:

Written, Edited or Reviewed By:

, MD, FFARCSI

Last Modified On: June 21, 2017

Pain Assist Inc.

Pramod Kerkar
  Note: Information provided is not a substitute for physician, hospital or any form of medical care. Examination and Investigation is necessary for correct diagnosis.

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