Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment
Lymphadenopathy is basically a state of abnormal enlargement of lymph nodes. Due to varying diseases, such inflammatory change occurs, in this case, it is due to dengue fever. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are responsible for spreading dengue fever. Dengue is a viral fever quite common in tropical countries where rainy ambiance is frequent. However knowing about the symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy can help. Let us understand some of the causes and treatment of dengue fever lymphadenopathy.
Causes of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
Dengue fever is the core cause of dengue fever lymphadenopathy. As mentioned above dengue fever is a vector borne ailment. When infected Aedes mosquito bites, the infection is passed on to the healthy person. When mosquitoes get an opportunity to breed in dirty stagnant water, it increases the spread of this infection. Improper sanitation, open potholes and other dirty areas where water stands are the breeding grounds for mosquitoes. While, dengue fever lymphadenopathy can affect anyone, at any age, individuals whose immune system is weaker are likely to suffer most.
Dengue fever lymphadenopathy is one viral disease and this virus originates from flavivirus family. The disease is transmitted from one person to another. It is seen that during day time, dengue spreading mosquitoes bite most, the worst thing is, these mosquitoes breed in fresh stagnant water inside the house.
Symptoms of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
The most prominent symptom of dengue fever lymphadenopathy, is enlarged lymph nodes in the groin and neck area. With this disease the affected individual develops fever that gradually goes up, mild to high.
Other common symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy include
- Strange moderate muscle pain, which may increase with movement.
- Red rashes allergies consistent irritation
- Nausea and vomiting especially when fever attacks.
- Excruciating pain in abdomen area, where the mesenteric lymph nodes are present.
- The enlarged lymph nodes however may take time to get over. When the acute illness will subside the lymph nodes would soon become normal.
Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy: Basic Symptoms
When the infected mosquito bites, the symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy starts to develop and within 3 to 5 days the symptoms come out. In the beginning, the patient may experience severe fatigue, body pain and ache in joints together with chill and fever. With the progress of the disease, red rashes appear on back, face, stomach and palms. During such condition, in groin, neck area lymph nodes may become inflamed and enlarged. The swollen lymph nodes are mostly non-tender.
- Sometimes, along with excruciating pain mesenteric lymph nodes may become enlarged and inflamed. This condition may be similar to acute abdomen. During this stage, joints become swollen and stiff.
- Fluid accumulation increases, in some cases, bleeding may occur from gums and traces of blood could be noticed in urine. This is one of the typical symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy.
- Due to low blood pressure there could be an incident of organ failure. Mild itching all throughout the body is also a common symptom of dengue fever lymphadenopathy.
Usually, patients recover within 7 days but for some the recovery may be slow. However the lymph nodes take little more time to get settled.
Possible Complications of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
Some possible complications of dengue fever lymphadenopathy include protracted enlargement of the lymph nodes thus hinting directly at a common condition such as lymphomas. Consistent signs and symptoms which may continue for number of months may be due to a serious infection which may turn out life-threatening.
Diagnosis of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
There are number of methods to diagnose dengue fever lymphadenopathy.
- Complete blood count together with peripheral smear examination.
- Blood test for dengue fever would include, decreased platelet count together with white cell count and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
- There would be increased liver enzymes for example alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST).
These tests along with clinical symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy can help in the diagnosis. Few think, in such condition lymph node biopsy is carried out but even after conducting suitable treatment symptoms and signs then one may need biopsy. Biopsy is a process which is undertaken to find out other causes of swollen glands (such as a lymphoma).
Lymph Node Biopsy for Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
- This is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) where a device in involved namely cannula, in order to take out tissues or fluid from the lymph nodes.
- Through the next process, lymph node core biopsy is carried out of the enlarged lymph node
- Then there is another process where lymph node open biopsy is done over the enlarged lymph node.
Depending on the severity of the condition, the physician advises the most appropriate diagnostic method for confirming the infection and assessing the complications.
Treatment of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
There is practically no treatment of dengue fever lymphadenopathy, however treatment is aimed at minimizing the symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy. The treating measures adopted to ease the symptoms are:
- Sufficient bed rest
- Adequate intake of analgesics
- Drinking excessive water.
Following such measures, swollen lymph nodes become normal but patient needs continuous supervision.