What is Close Femur Fracture?
Close femur fracture is internal as it does not protrude from the body while in open fracture, the bone crashes out of the human body.
The thighbone or femur is considered to be in close vicinity to the center of the human body with the capability to provide the legs the required strength to walk as well as jump. Not only femur or thighbone is largest in length but it also has maximum endurance. Due to the impeccable strength, it cannot be easily broken however close femur fracture or open fracture can occur due to untoward incidents such as car accident.
Where is the Femur Bone Located?
Femur is considered to be the solitary bone in the thigh region. The total length starts from the tip of hip and extends to the borders of the knee. Some common attributes include the head accompanied by medial and lateral condyles. One can also find the patellar surface with the lesser & greater trochanters.
What are the Causes of Close Femur Fracture?
Collision occurring due to higher speed levels could result in or cause the close femur fracture. Motorcycle collision on the road could be one of the most important causes.
In addition, if a pedestrian is mowed down by the vehicle, it can result in the fracture.
A lower-force incident, such as a fall from standing, may cause a close femur fracture in an older adult who has weaker bones.
Accidents involving lesser force might lead to close femur fracture. For instance, falling from a height may cause the problem in the individual who is old and the bones do not have enough strength.
Causes of Close Femur Fracture Due to Trauma
Causes of close femur fracture due to trauma include:
- Accident due to motor vehicles or the pedestrians getting rammed by the car.
- Direct collision in games such as football as well as hockey.
- Falling from a huge height such as pole vaulting, while climbing a mountain or hills.
- Wounds caused due to gun shot.
Pathologic Causes of Close Femur Fracture
Pathologic causes of close femur fracture are:
- Chronic disease of the bones caused due to irregular metabolism.
- Tumor of the bone in crucial stage.
- Tumor which is metastatic.
- Acute Infection.
- Long term usage of bisphosphonate.
Reasons for the Stress Close Femur Fracture
Reasons for the stress close femur fracture are:
- Running along with jumping with higher frequency.
- Bone disease caused due to varied metabolism.
- Female runners who are oligomenorrheic or even amenorrheic.
- Inappropriate density of minerals in bones.
- Lack of proper training.
- Lack of proper footwear.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Close Femur Fracture?
A severe pain hits the thigh and one will find it increasingly difficult to use the leg and this is the major symptom of close femur fracture. Once the close femur fracture is caused, do not try to walk or else it might lead to more problems. Instability of the leg is one of the remarkably ordinary symptoms of close femur fracture. In addition, fracture is accompanied by tenderness along with swelling in close femur fracture. You may also feel numbness if the blood supply gets constricted. Internal bleeding arising out of fracture may result in low blood pressure.
What are the Risk Factors for Close Femur Fracture?
Some of the reasons increasing the risk of close femur fracture are as follows:
- Trauma is a major risk factor for close femur fracture.
- Occurrence of osteoporosis is the second major factor of risk for close femur fracture.
- Manifestation of cancer.
- Using antipsychotic medications from long term perspective.
- Usage of the inhibitors deploying proton pump technology.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Lack of strength.
- Old injuries or fractures can also be a risk factor for close femur fracture.
What are the Complications in Close Femur Fracture?
Some of the complications of close femur fracture are as follows:
Early complications of close femur fracture:
- Neurovascular damage arising due to the sharpness along the end of the bones is a complication of close femur fracture.
- Loss of blood leading to swelling in the thigh is another early complication of close femur fracture.
- Compartment syndrome is caused in an acute manner.
- Problems in the union of fractured bones. 5 to 10 percent of close femur fractures do not recover as anticipated. Delayed union of close femur fracture is the term used for if there is no radiological proof of recovering within 3 months of close femur fracture. Non union of close femur fracture is the term used for when 9 months have finished since the time of fracture, with no visible signs of recovering in the previous three months.
- In females, a femur fracture does not heal easily. If after the scan, healing is not visible after 3 months, the situation is called delayed union. When the healing does not occur after 9 months of treatment, the situation is called nonunion.
Later complications of close femur fracture:
- Deposition of fat is a long term complication of close femur fracture.
- Occurring of deep vein thrombosis is another later complication of close femur fracture.
- Pulmonary infection.
- Rise of chronic Infection.
- Lack of alignment and the shortening of the bone.
- Delayed union accompanied by non-union state.
- Irritation to the bone is also a long term complication of close femur fracture.
What Tests are Conducted to Diagnose Close Femur Fracture?
Medical History and Physical Examination for Diagnosing Close Femur Fracture
Initially the medical history and physical examination of the patient is taken for close femur fracture. Doctor should know the cause of the injury to diagnose close femur fracture. For example, one should explain how the accident occurred and what the speed was. Other facts such as the airbag opening, wearing of seat belt, are you the passenger or the driver should be mentioned in great detail. It will go a long way in diagnosing the problem and to know whether the close femur fracture occurred.
In addition, one should also provide information about chronic health conditions such as diabetes along with higher blood pressure. Patient needs to explain to the doctor what medicines are being consumed.
Once the discussion is completed, the doctor will conduct detailed analysis of the injury pertaining to legs. Some of the symptoms that would be looked at are as follows:
- A pattern deformation found in the thigh region.
- Eruption caused to the skin.
- Residual Bruises.
- Presence of bony pieces.
Once the visualization process in the physical examination is completed, doctor will check if there is any abnormality along the thigh or even the leg region. In addition, he may also verify if the skin is tight along with the wellbeing of the muscles. In addition pulse rate is also measured along with the movement in the area adjoining the leg as well as the foot.
Imaging Tests for Diagnosing Close Femur Fracture
Some of the below mentioned imaging tests might be conducted to provide clarity:
- X ray might be taken for diagnosing close femur fracture. It could be a wonderful option to provide complete clarity about the fracture inside the bone. It might indicate the category to which the fracture belongs. One can also track the location of the injury
- Computed tomography (CT) scan sometimes is also suggested for diagnosing close femur fracture. CT scan is considered to provide detailed information about the fracture as compared to X ray. It provides a snap shot of the limbs from a cross sectional perspective. X ray might not be able to find the thin lines that occur during the fracture however CT scan can accomplish the task in an effective manner. One can witness the appearance of the lines.
- Mayo Clinic. (2021). Femur Fractures https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/femur-fractures/symptoms-causes/syc-20352104