The majority of the cases of orchitis in toddlers are caused by mumps virus infection.(1)
Orchitis may also come from infections and other illnesses elsewhere in the human body.(2)
Orchitis is an ailment occurring in men where one or both testicles are swollen. It is induced by numerous types of viruses and bacteria. Other reasons include prostate infection or STDs such as chlamydia or gonorrhoea. Some of its symptoms include tender, enlarged, heavy feeling in the testicle and groin area, blood in the semen, uneasiness while urinating, discomfort while intercourse, scrotal swelling, and discharge from the penis. Orchitis can be diagnosed by conducting a physical exam.(3)
Is Orchitis An Emergency?
This condition can be unpleasant and cause a lot of distress. It can be classified into acute and chronic. So, if you are suffering from orchitis, consider it an emergency and start with the treatment as soon as possible. If your condition intensifies, you may require surgery. Your doctor will prescribe antibiotics for a brief period to treat this condition.
Approximately 20% of the males (younger than the age of 10) with mumps suffer from orchitis. And 60% of patients with orchitis experience unilateral testicular atrophy. This condition rarely results in sterility. Some researches support the possibility of forming a testicular tumor after suffering from orchitis.
Orchitis signs normally display a couple of days after parotitis. And bacterial orchitis is linked with simultaneous epididymitis. Occurring in sexually active men aged 15-50; this disease starts with benign prostatic hypertrophy. Some of its medications include hot or cold packs, bed rest, and scrotal elevation. Most of these cases are resolved without difficulties with relevant antibiotic coverage.
What Antibiotics Treat Orchitis?
If the orchitis is caused because of bacteria, you can have anti-inflammatory antibiotics. Following are the antibiotics used for treating orchitis:
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin): This third-generation cephalosporin with gram-negative activity and comprehensive-spectrum has low efficacy against gram-positive organisms. It is highly effective against unyielding organisms. It binds to more than one penicillin-binding protein and restricts bacterial growth.
Doxycycline (Doryx, Vibramycin): This drug inhibits the synthesis of proteins and bacterial growth by binding to 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits of receptive bacteria. It is used in conjunction with ceftriaxone for treating gonorrhea.
Azithromycin (Zithromax): This antibiotic treats moderate infections that are caused by responsive strains of microorganisms. It is essentially used for gonorrhoeal and chlamydia infections of the urinal tract.
Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra DS): It hinders bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Doctors prescribe this medicine to the males below 35 years of age.
Ofloxacin (Floxin): This medicine is given to males suffering from orchitis and those who are below the age of 35. It is effective against C trachomatis and discerns the prostate well. It consists of a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative with a broad-spectrum bacterial effect.(4)
Bacterial orchitis is remedied with correct diagnostics and proper treatment and allow the testicles to recover back to normal. However, if the testicles are still swollen after the treatment, your physician might consider further testing to rule out testicular cancer.
- Cutaneous Scrotal Fistula
- Chronic epididymitis
- Scrotal Abscess
- Testicular Infarction
The inflammation in either of the testicles because of an infection results in orchitis. It can be caused by both viruses and bacteria. If your symptoms worsen or if you cannot determine what is causing the swelling and pain, consult your doctor right away. If you suspect you have something wrong near your genital or notice some swelling and redness on your testicle, it is an emergency.
- Orchitis (Bacterial & Viral): Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications, Prevention, Tips to Cope
- What is Epididymo-Orchitis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Who is at Risk, Diagnosis