The majority of the cases of orchitis in toddlers are caused by mumps virus infection.(1)
Orchitis may also come from infections and other illnesses elsewhere in the human body.(2)
Caused by an infection, orchitis is a condition occurring in men where one or both the testicles are inflamed. Orchitis in children is originated due to infection with the mumps virus.(3)
This condition is classified into severe, subacute, or chronic depending on the duration of the symptoms. Chronic orchitis prevails for more than three months and begins with sharp pain while acute orchitis lasts for six weeks and is characterized by swelling and discomfort.
What Bacteria Causes Orchitis?
Orchitis is generally caused by bacteria including streptococcus, staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Along with orchitis, some men will also experience a prostate infection. Bacteria causing sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea also induce orchitis. However, this happens only to men aged 19-35 who are sexually active. If you have unprotected sex or have a history of STD or if your partner has STD, you may be at risk too of suffering from orchitis.
The virus causing mumps can lead to orchitis as well. And this is most prevalent in young boys aged below 10. Many young boys with mumps develop orchitis and frequently suffer from a condition called testicular atrophy which means shrinking of testicles. Hence, it is imperative for children, especially boys, to take shots to guard them against mumps.
If you don’t have proper vaccination against mumps, you are at threat for non-sexually transmitted orchitis. Although, there are few conditions for the same including urinary tract infections, 45+ age, and frequently placing a catheter in your bladder.
Bacterial orchitis occurs because of an inflammatory process in the epididymis. Orchitis can also be caused due to blastomycosis and tuberculosis. Acute orchitis may be the result of hematogenous seeding, which is a risk with brucellosis in endemic areas. Pyogenic orchitis makes the person look visibly ill and has an ache in the testicle involved.(4)
Does Orchitis Require Surgery?
In general, orchitis does not require surgery and can be treated with antibiotics. However, if the condition is chronic, surgery would be your resort.
Most of the men suffering from orchitis need antibiotics to get treated. Antibiotics are essential to not only cure the infection but also prevent it from spreading. A dose for a minimum of 10 days usually does the trick. Although if the prostrate is involved, the treatment might last longer. If you have vomiting, nausea, and high fever, you might need to get admitted to a hospital for IV antibiotics. Orchitis caused due to mumps normally clears up within three weeks.
The basic indications comprise accelerated onset of pain in either of the testicles and expanded to the groin area. You will notice that your testicles are swollen, supple, purple, and red. Some men will feel heavy in their swollen testicle or probably notice blood in their semen.
Exams And Tests For Orchitis
Your physician may conduct some diagnostics tests. Usually, an ultrasound of the testicles is performed to ascertain the difference between testicular torsion and orchitis. The infection can also be identified via a rectal exam. If the infection involves the prostate, you will have to have antibiotic treatment for a longer period. Urine samples can ascertain if you are suffering from STD and what other bacteria are responsible for the infection. If your doctor suspects STD, blood will be drawn for HIV test.(5)
- Orchitis (Bacterial & Viral): Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications, Prevention, Tips to Cope
- What is Epididymo-Orchitis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Who is at Risk, Diagnosis