In most of the cases, uterine fibroids are small and do not show any symptoms. As they do not impact the quality of life and does not cause discomfort, no treatment is required. But in some cases, the uterine fibroid grows in size and may cause complications.
Are Fibroids In Uterus Dangerous?
Uterine fibroids are a common occurrence in the women of reproductive age. Uterine fibroids are rare in the women with age less than 18 and the condition subsides after menopause. Although uterine fibroids are termed as tumors, which creates a sense of concern among the patients but fortunately these are non-cancerous tumors and condition can be effectively managed. In most of the cases, fibroids are small and the patient does not experience any symptoms. No treatment is required in such cases. However, when the fibroid is categorized as large, treatment is advised. If the patient experiences severe symptoms, surgery is recommended. Certain complications arise as the fibroid proceeds. Complications due to uterine fibroids depend upon the location of fibroids1. Some of the complications are:
Infertility. Uterine fibroids may be a serious hindrance in the way to pregnancy. The extent of severity depends upon the location, number, and size of the fibroids. The uterine wall may be damaged leading to poor receptivity of the fetus. Further, the uterine fibroids may block the passage of the fallopian tube and does not allow the egg to get available for fertilization. Further, the uterine fibroid may not allow the sperms to enter for fertilizing the eggs2. Thus, the women who have difficulty in achieving pregnancy should be screened for the presence of uterine fibroids as they are common in the women of reproductive age.
Pregnancy Complications. Uterine fibroids are caused due to the hormonal imbalance. High level of female dominating hormone i.e. progesterone and testosterone are responsible for the occurrence of this condition. These hormones are at a high-level during pregnancy. Thus, the risk of development of uterine fibroids increases in pregnancy. Presence of uterine fibroids in pregnancy poses a serious risk to the fetus. Uterine fibroids may increase the risk of miscarriage. There might be preterm delivery i.e. delivery of the baby before completing a full gestation period. Due to the presence of uterine fibroids, the fetus may not have sufficient space and thus may have an abnormal position. The fetus may also get displaced from the uterine wall2. Fortunately, the uterine fibroid developing in the first trimester generally remains the same in size. Further, the presence of large fibroids in the vagina may block the delivery. In such a case a cesarean section is required3.
Severe Menstrual Disorders. Women with uterine fibroids have a hard time managing menstrual bleeding. There is severe abdominal pain and cramps in the menstrual cycle. The bleeding in the menstrual cycle is so profuse that medical intervention is sometimes immediately required2. In many cases, the pain and bleeding may occur in between the periods.
Pelvic Pain. Women with uterine fibroids have severe pelvic pain. The pain is more pronounced during sexual intercourse2. Normally the pain can be subsiding with over-the-counter medications but in some serious conditions, aggressive treatment is recommended.
Acute Anemia. Anemia is the condition in which the level of hemoglobin is lower than the normal level. Anemia is caused due to excessive blood loss. In uterine fibroid, the patient experienced heavy bleeding leading to excessive blood loss, thus causing anemia2.
Twisting Of Stem: Pedunculated fibroids are attached to the uterus with a stem, twisting of the stem may lead to pain, fever, and nausea4.
Various complications are associated with the fibroids especially with large uterine fibroids. Infertility is a complication of fibroid as this may prevent the women from getting pregnant by hindering the fertilization of egg with sperm. It may also lead to pregnancy complications such as miscarriage and pre-term labor and also cause anemia.
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