What Is Stage 2 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?
What Is Stage 2 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?
There are four distinct stages of Hodgkin’s lymphoma each identified based on the spread of cancer. Stage 1 and stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphomas are considered the earlier stages of cancer whereas stage 3 and 4 are more advanced. Staging is not only essential in identifying where the cancer is located and what areas are affected, but is also significant in telling the outlook of cancer and choosing the best treatment for cancer at that particular stage. Depending on the spread of cancer, rather its stage, Hodgkin’s lymphoma can either be favorable or unfavorable with regards to treatment. Favorable stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be treated with ease and the cancer can go into remission while unfavorable stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma is much more difficult to treat. Regardless, any stage of lymphoma can be managed and controlled with the right treatment.
Causes of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Hodgkin’s lymphoma etiology is not fully known, but, it is known is that it originates within the lymphatic system. The lymphocyte cells, which are white blood cells responsible for fighting against germs and microbes in the body start to grow abnormally and multiply into many immature lymphocyte cells. These cells then collect at the lymph nodes and they form masses (tumor) which are basically the lymphoma. Factors that increase the risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma are family history of lymphomas, age, gender, infections, obesity, exposure to harmful chemicals, and high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
Steps To Staging Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Once you have been diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma then staging is done, which is the subsequent step of identifying the spread of cancer. The stage of the cancer is identified via further diagnostic tests which include PET scan and CT scan. First things first, the number of cancerous lymph nodes and their location are identified. Adding to that, the size is noted down to determine whether or not the patient has a bulky disease. That is, if the swollen lymph nodes have grown larger than a certain size, say 10 cm or more, depending on the location. Another important step in staging Hodgkin’s lymphoma is figuring out whether the lymphoma is on one side of the body or both.
For stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the tumor is located on one side. The organs affected by the lymphoma are also accounted for and where they are located i.e. whether they are part of the lymphatic system or not. Organs located within the lymphatic system include; spleen, thymus, tonsils and bone marrow while those outside the lymphatic system are lungs, liver, bone, and brain.
What To Expect In Stage 2 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is considered as stage 2 if the cancer has affected two or more lymph nodes on one side. The tumors can be above or below the diaphragm. Also, stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be described if the cancer has affected at most one lymphatic or extranodal organ and two or more groups of lymph nodes are implicated.
If an extranodal organ is affected, then the cancer is staged as IIE. In case a patient experiences B symptoms which include night sweats, fever and sudden weight loss, stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma is described as IIB. Otherwise, the patient is said to have stage IA Hodgkin’s lymphoma. If the symptoms include bulky disease whereby the lymphoma is 10 cm or larger in size, then the stage of the cancer is referred to as stage 2 bulky. Where the B and bulky disease symptoms are evident, then the cancer, despite being stage 2, is more advanced compared to when the symptoms are absent.
Stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be described in two scenarios. The first, where the cancer is located in two or more lymph nodes on one side. The second is where the lymphoma has affected an organ, either on a lymphatic site or an extranodal site and two or more lymph nodes are also affected. This stage of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is considered an early stage of the cancer, meaning it can be treated and controlled much easier than advanced stages of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Depending on the symptoms a patient is experiencing, stage 2 Hodgkin’s lymphoma can either be IIE (extranodal site), IIB (B symptoms) or II Bulky (bulky disease).
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