What are the Most Severe Complication of Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT?
Deep vein thrombosis or DVT, which is a disorder caused due to the formation of blood clots in the veins, leads to serious complications. The occurrence of deep vein thrombosis or DVT varies across the individuals, which further depends on the gender and age. The reason for the appearance of the blood clots shall be many such as the previous occurrence of the episode, aging factor, a family member with a history of deep vein thrombosis or DVT, and any injuries that damaged the blood vessels.
Irrespective of the reasons, the serious complications that an individual has to face when there is the presence of deep vein thrombosis or DVT are:
- Pulmonary embolism or PE
- Post-thrombotic syndrome.
Pulmonary embolism is the first serious complication and the most serious factor of deep vein thrombosis or DVT. Pulmonary embolism is nothing but the situation where blood clots enter the bloodstream after breaking off from the veins and reaches the lungs. In such cases, the clots are capable of blocking the blood vessels in the lungs leading to death. However, it is possible to avoid the situation by identifying the presence of blood clots in the first stage.
On the contrary, if the blood clot is small, it is difficult to identify and may not pose any symptom or sign. If the size of the clot is medium, an individual feels difficulty in breathing and chest pain. Medium clots are common occurrences in older adults, as there is a reduction in movement of the body. When the clot grows in size, it breaks off and causes heart attack and lung’s failure. One in every ten is prone to the pulmonary embolism due to untreated deep vein thrombosis or DVT.
Post-thrombotic syndrome is the second serious complication that an individual will experience when diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis or DVT. Post-thrombotic syndrome is long-term and occurs in the calf region. Around 20 to 40 percent of patients diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis or DVT will fall prey to this condition.
If the individual possesses deep vein thrombosis or DVT, then it is possible for the blood clots in the vein of the calf region to divert the flow to other veins that increases the blood pressure. Such a situation affects the blood tissues present in the calf region and leads to the following symptoms:
- Calf pain
- Ulcers (in rare cases)
When deep vein thrombosis or DVT develops in the thigh region, the risk for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome increases at a drastic rate and in addition to it, it is also possible for people who are overweight to improve the risk factor furthermore and in those who had one or more events of the deep vein thrombosis or DVT episodes.
Treatment for Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT
Curing deep vein thrombosis or DVT and preventing the serious complications that arise from it is possible with the help of medicines. The anticoagulant drugs are the prescribed cure, which helps in preventing the formation of clots. Additionally, there are also capable of delaying the time in the growth of blood clots that are already present in the body. They are also capable of stopping the clot from breaking off from the vein and enter to another part through the bloodstream.
Although anticoagulant drugs are often known to thin the blood, they alter protein content to prevent the formation of clots in the body. Warfarin and heparin are the essential anticoagulants described to treat deep vein thrombosis or DVT and prevent the formation of pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome. Of the two drugs, heparin is the first choice, as it works immediately and prevents the formation of deep vein thrombosis or DVT in future.
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