What Is SIADH or Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone?
The hypothalamus located in the brain produces a hormone called as antidiuretic hormone. The function of this hormone is to control the levels of water present in the body. This hormone is released by the pituitary gland. There are instances when this antidiuretic hormone starts getting produced at other locations and not the hypothalamus, then this gives rise to a medical condition called Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone or SIADH. This syndrome makes it hard for the body to release water and causes depleted levels of electrolytes like sodium. Some of the early symptoms of SIADH can be cramping and nausea whereas in acute cases of SIADH there may be seizures or the affected individual may go into a coma. SIADH is mainly caused by cancer, especially that of the lungs. SIADH is also called by the name of Ectopic ADH Secretion.
What Are The Causes of SIADH or Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone?
As stated, cancer especially that of the lungs is the main cause of SIADH. This condition can also be caused by tumors of the head and neck. Some other causes of SIADH are:
- Any sort of damage to the hypothalamus
- Guillain-Barré syndrome
- Heart failure
- Lung disorders
- Head trauma.
What Are The Symptoms of SIADH or Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone?
SIADH tends to make it hard for the body to eliminate excess water resulting in abnormally high fluid levels as well as reduced levels of sodium causing a medical condition called as hyponatremia. Acute cases of SIADH may have the following symptoms:
- Appetite loss
- Muscle weakness
- Coma, in severe cases.
How Is SIADH or Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Diagnosed?
In order to diagnose SIADH, the treating physician will take a detailed history and conduct a physical examination. A urine examination may also be required. Blood test will be done to look for ADH levels to see if they are elevated and if so it may indicate SIADH. Once diagnosis of SIADH is definitively made then treatments are done based on the cause of SIADH.
What Are Treatments For SIADH or Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone?
The first step in treatment for SIADH is to limit fluid intake so as to prevent additional fluid buildup. Certain medications like Lasix, which prevents fluid retention can be given. In case if SIADH is caused due to cancer then treatment for that needs to be initiated almost immediately. The treatments can include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.