At the backside of your eye, a layer of tissue called the retina is present that senses light as well as sends pictures to the brain. This nerve tissue has a macula in its center. It provides a central and sharp vision that is required for driving, reading, and seeing minute details. If this vital tissue is affected by retinal disorders, then they may disturb your vision or can make you blind in the worst cases.
In case someone is suffering from any retinal disorders, he/she needs to consult with an ophthalmologist. An ophthalmologist is a medical expert in eye care or ophthalmology. One may require to consult with an eye expert specializing in retinal disorders.(1, 2, 3)
6 Common Retinal Disorders You Should Know About
Given below is the information about some general retinal disorders :
If the retina has a hole or tear, a retinal tear takes place. This generally happens when in the eye, a gel-like substance or vitreous, affixes to the retina and then pulls hard causing it to tear. It generally happens when the gel-like substance or vitreous detaches due to trauma or the ageing process. Retinal tear may lead to blurry vision, that is the appearance of flashes or floaters suddenly. In order to avoid retinal detachment, it is necessary to immediately start treatment for retinal tears. It is a really serious concern that leads to vision problems.(4, 5)
A detached retina takes place when the accumulation of fluid that generally enters by the retinal tear, leads to the retina detaching from the layer of the eye or choroid that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the retina. This condition is considered a severe medical condition that needs treatment as early as possible otherwise a person can lose his/her vision permanently.(6, 7)
Macular holes and retinal tears are somehow similar. It happens when an abnormal pulling takes place between the retina and the vitreous, causing tiny breaks in the macula. A macular hole may result from age, eye injury, or both.(8, 9)
Retinal inflammation is referred to as retinitis. Bacteria and viruses are usually responsible for it. Some conditions may lead to retinitis, such as Dengue fever, syphilis and Lyme disease. Autoimmune disorders, like lupus and Behcet’s disease, can also lead to this Retinitis.(10, 11)
Eye specialists generally refer to (AMD that is age-related macular degeneration due to the fact that it occurs more commonly in older adults. This condition causes vision to be distorted in the center due to deterioration of the macula, As a result, one may lose eyesight permanently. The most common retinal disorder in the United States, according to a study published in 2021, is macular degeneration.(12, 13)
Retinal Vein Occlusion:
Known as eye stroke, retinal vein occlusion occurs when the retinal vein branches are occluded, resulting in blood and fluid spilling onto one’s retina. This blockage can prevent the flow of blood, resulting in nerve cells dying and loss of eyesight.(14, 15)
This is a hereditary degenerative disease in which retinal cells are damaged and lost. It is a rare condition. It may lead to gradual eyesight loss.(16)
ERMs or Epiretinal membranes are also known as cellophane maculopathy or macular puckers. It fabricates a thin layer which builds on the inner surface of the retina. This is generally scar tissue caused by an injury or any medical issue.
Generally, there isn’t any major symptom caused due to Epiretinal membranes, unless they impact the retina’s center or macula, as it is essential in observing visual details and attributes. ERMs may distort the central vision of a person.(17, 18)
Young children and Infants are most likely to develop retinal cancer known as Retinoblastoma. In the United States, about 200 to 300 children are diagnosed with this cancer every year, as per a report of the American Cancer Society. When taking a photo of the kid, if the pupil lacks in red reflex, then it is usually an indication of this disease.(19, 20)
This condition occurs when the macula swells because of fluids accumulating there. In addition to retinal vein occlusion, diabetes and AMD, there are several other conditions that may cause this disease.(21, 22)
Retinopathy is caused when the blood vessels, present at the backside of your eye, damage and lead to the fluid leaking. This kind of fluid accumulation may have a severe impact on the retina and can change the vision. Retinopathy can occur due to the health conditions like hypertension, diabetes and cancer. The usual diabetes complication is diabetic retinopathy. As per research, in the US, it is the main reason for blindness in adults.(23, 24)
These are some common retinal disorders one may suffer from. If you notice any of the symptoms, you must consult with an eye specialist as soon as possible. After all, it’s the matter of your eyes that let you see the world! Take care of this delicate part of the body so you don’t suffer from any eye disorder.