Multiple myeloma refers to the neoplasm of plasma cells and it accounts for about 0.8 percent of the total cancer cases across the world. Moreover, multiple myeloma constitutes about 13 percent of hematologic malignancies, while the problem characterizes the infiltration of bones, bone marrow and in some cases, other tissues because of malignant plasma cells to produce a monoclonal para-protein component.
Does Multiple Myeloma Run In Families?
Until now, doctors and medical research experts have found several indirect and direct lines or evidences, which highlight the existence of various inherited factors to predispose patients to develop MGUS, multiple myeloma and similar other types of cancerous problems. Accordingly-
Family Pedigree Analysis- Multiple Myeloma is the second common type of hematologic malignancy in different areas of the United States. Family pedigree analysis of various high-risk family members, racial disparities and case-control studies in case of multiple myeloma disease indicate its potential inherited type of predisposition.
Genome Wide Association Studies- Next, doctors have found that the analysis done by GWASs i.e. Genome Wide Association Studies to identify the susceptibility loci in different types of cancers are until now underway in case of studying about multiple myeloma disease in detail. Until now, GWASs in case of multiple myeloma have identified large numbers of potential interest regions to conduct future studies on different chromosomes to identify inheritance of the multiple myeloma disease.
Para Proteins To Justify Inheritance Of Multiple Myeloma- Along with the aforementioned studies, doctors have found large numbers of para-proteins’ targets, known commonly as paratargs possessing close relationships in case of multiple myeloma. Especially, doctors have found hyper-phosphorylation present in paratarg protein, as inherited in autosomals in a dominant way and in turn; constitute a common mechanism related to the antigenicity of the aforementioned para-proteins.
Hyperphosphorylated Paratarg-7 Protein To Target Multiple Myeloma Patients- Doctors have found a specific type of protein i.e. Hyperphosphorylated Paratarg-7 Protein, abbreviated as pP-7 to target in people suffering from multiple myeloma and identified in large numbers of other members belonging to high-risk of multiple myeloma families.
According to the analysis, pP-7 frequency to act as any antigenic target is especially high among multiple myeloma patients belonging to African American areas, which may justify racial disparities and family inheritance in multiple myeloma disease and patients. (1)
Signs And Symptoms Of Multiple Myeloma
If we talk about the initial stage, multiple myeloma disease does not possess any sign and symptom. However, whenever symptoms take place, they include-
- Chest, spine or bone pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Appetite loss and weight loss
- Confusion or mental fogginess
- Tiredness and fatigue
- Weight loss
- Frequent infections
- Excessive feeling of thirst
- Numbness or weakness in arms and/or legs
Besides multiple myeloma symptoms mentioned above, doctors have found a few major clinical manifestations in the form of renal impairment, lytic bony lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia and immune dysfunction.
Multiple Myeloma Relations With MGUS
Multiple myeloma disease often starts out in a relatively benign form referred as MGUS i.e. monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. If we talk about the scenario of multiple myeloma disease and its relation with MGUS, we have found that MGUS is present in 3 percent of the total population in the United States and among people aging more than 50 years. In addition, most of these MGUS patients carry a risk related to progression towards multiple myeloma of approximately 1 percent on a yearly basis.
Causes And Risk Factors Of Multiple Myeloma
Even though doctors until now have failed or understood very hardly exact causes of Multiple Myeloma problem, they have found different factors or risks related to the development of multiple myeloma disease. These include-
- Gender and age of an individual
- Ethnic background and racial of a patient
- Exposure to dioxin type of compounds
- Exposure to high radiation
- Underlying problem of immunodeficiency
- Hematolymphoid neoplasms
- Family history associated with multiple myeloma (1)
- What Is The Best Treatment For Multiple Myeloma?
- Is Multiple Myeloma A Fatal Disease?
- How Aggressive Is Multiple Myeloma & How Is It Treated?
- What Foods Should I Avoid With Multiple Myeloma?
- Can Multiple Myeloma Turn Into Leukemia?
- Can You Exercise With Multiple Myeloma & What Exercises Are Better?
- How Many Stages Of Multiple Myeloma Cancer Are There?