What Is Chronic Movement Disorder?

What Is Chronic Movement Disorder?

Movement disorders are a term used for a group of conditions that are neurological in nature.1 These conditions cause increased movements that are abnormal. The movements may be voluntary or involuntary. These disorders can also lead to slow or reduced movements. The word chronic means diseases that are long standing or constantly recurring. Chronic movement disorders are those that are long standing or constantly recurring.

Chronic movement disorders are long standing disorders of various types, which are neurological conditions. Different movement disorders present with different symptoms. In order to obtain relief from the symptoms of these disorders, it is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and begin an efficient treatment.

Different Types Of Movement Disorders

Some common types of movement disorders are-

Ataxia

  • This movement disorder affects the cerebellum2
  • Cerebellum is that part of the brain which controls coordinated movements
  • Ataxia causes clumsy or uncoordinated movements of speech or limbs
  • It may also cause an uncoordinated balance and many other symptoms

Cervical dystonia

  • In this condition, there are spasms or longstanding contractions of the neck muscles3
  • This causes the neck to move in different ways

Dystonia

  • In this condition, there are repetitive movements like involuntary muscle contractions and twisting
  • This condition may be seen causing an effect on the entire body which is known as generalized dystonia or only one part of the body, known as focal dystonia

Chorea

  • This condition characteristically involves the face, mouth, limbs and trunk
  • There is a typical brief, irregular, somewhat quick, involuntary and repetitive movements of these body parts

Functional movement disorder-

This condition is not due to any neurological factors but, it may resemble any kind of movement disorder

Multiple system atrophy

  • This condition affects many brain systems
  • Multiple system atrophy is responsible for causing a movement disorder like parkinsonism or ataxia
  • It may cause low blood pressure and defective bladder function
  • It is a very uncommon type of neurological disorder which is progressive in nature

Huntington’s disease

  • This is an inherited kind of neurological disorder
  • It is a neurodegenerative disorder, that is progressive in nature
  • It causes chorea, that is uncontrolled movements, defective cognitive functions and psychiatric problems

Myoclonus

This condition is responsible for quick, rapid jerks of one muscle or a group of muscles 4

Progressive supranuclear palsy-

  • It is a very rare type of neurological disorder
  • It causes difficulties with walking, eye movements and balance
  • It may seem like Parkinson’s disease, but it is a very different disorder

Parkinson’s disease

  • This is a disease that progresses slowly
  • It is a neurodegenerative disorder
  • It causes tremors, rigidity or stiffness, bradykinesia- slow reduced movements or imbalance
  • It may even lead to some other symptoms that may be not related to movements

Parkinsonism

Parkinsonism is a group of conditions which shows symptoms that are similar to those seen in Parkinson’s disease

Restless legs syndrome

  • This is a movement disorder which causes some abnormal or unpleasant feelings or sensations the legs while you are lying down or relaxing
  • These sensations often seem to be relieved by making movement, hence the name- restless legs syndrome

Tardive dyskinesia

  • A long-term use of some specific drugs is responsible for the development of this condition
  • These drugs are the ones used in the treatment of psychiatric conditions, also known as neuroleptic drugs
  • This condition is responsible for causing involuntary and repetitive movements like blinking of eye, grimacing and other movements

Tourette syndrome

  • This neurological condition begins between childhood and teen years
  • It is related to repetitive movements known as motor tics and vocal sounds known as vocal tics

Wilson’s disease

  • This is an inherited type of disorder which is rare in nature
  • It leads to an excessive quantity of copper build up in the body which causes neurological conditions

Tremors

  • This disease causes a rhythmic shaking of various parts of the body
  • The shaking is involuntary
  • The commonest type of tremor is essential tremor.

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