MRSA is acronym for- Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. The scientists had discovered staphylococcus aureus in the 1880s and in the period of late 1940s this bacteria began to transform and was found to be resistant to penicillin. And so the doctors started using the antibiotic methicillin for treating the infection. Later in the year of 1961, it was discovered that now these bacteria have gained resistance to amoxicillin as well as methicillin. Methicillin is a kind of antibiotic that belongs to the penicillin group. Earlier this antibiotic and other antibiotics from the penicillin group were widely used for the treatment of Staphylococcus Aureus infection and because of its over usage now Staph. Aureus has gained resistance against these antibiotics as well as against methicillin. And hence these bacteria have been given the name MRSA.
What Is The Strongest Antibiotic For MRSA?
MRSA can be treated either by oral or intravenous antibiotics. Some of the intravenous antibiotics used are:
Vancomycin: It interferes with the bacterial cell wall production by blocking the formation of peptidoglycan leading to bacterial death. This is the most widely used antibiotic that is very effective in treating MRSA. It is used as a first line drug. Dosage- 30mg/kg, the dose must not be given more than 2g within 24hrs period. Administration is done slowly over a period of 90 minutes otherwise it may lead to “red man syndrome”. Red man syndrome- it is a kind of hypersensitivity reaction that needs emergency medical management. (1)
Daptomycin: This antibiotic is used as a second line of treatment. Dosage- 4 to 6 mg/kg
Linezolid: This is used as a third line of treatment. Dosage – 600mg/12 hourly. Side effects- lactic acidosis, thrombocytopenia, etc.
Tigecycline: This is used as a fourth line of treatment.
Dalfopristin: This is used as a fifth line of management.
Antibiotics that are given orally to treat MRSA:
Trimethoprim And Sulfamethoxazole Combination: It is used as a first line of treatment. It is also an effective oral drug.
Clindamycin: This is used as second line of treatment. Bacteria may gain resistance against it.
Doxycycline: It is used as third line of management.
Linezolid: It is used as a fourth line of management.
Rifampin: It is not used alone but in combination with other drugs. (1)
Medicines that are ineffective in the treatment of MRSA:
Treatment Of Local Skin Infection
Incision And Drainage Of The Skin Lesion: The skin lesion may contain pus within, this must be incised and the pus should be drained out.
Culture And Sensitivity: The collected pus sample must be sent to lab for culture and sensitivity testing. Antibiotic treatment must be given accordingly.
Symptoms And Signs Of MRSA
Skin infection symptoms- this includes production of a bump on the skin, which may look similar to an insect bite. Following are the visible signs and symptoms of this skin lesion:
- Increased local temperature
- Presence of fever
- Signs of inflammation are seen
Symptoms of deep tissue infection and blood invasion:
- Chest pain
- Body ache
- Muscle pains
- Non healing of wounds since a long time
- Swelling of involved body part
- Tenderness of effected body part
- Headache (2)
These were the signs and symptoms of MRSA. The presence of these signs and symptoms doesn’t necessarily conclude the presence of infection. Other lab tests are also done to confirm the diagnosis. Culture and sensitivity tests are done. Nasal swab and pus from skin lesions is collected for the test.
After confirmation of the disease, proper treatment must be started immediately. Suitable preventive actions must be taken to control the spread of infection to the healthy people coming in contact with the patient. Proper hygiene must be maintained. All this will lead to good recovery of the patient and also avoidance of infection to other people.
There are many drugs available for the treatment of MRSA but the most commonly used and the strongest antibiotic is “Vancomycin”. It is a very effective drug and the response to the treatment with it is quick and noticeable.
It effects the peptidoglycan production that is very essential content necessary for the cell wall production of the bacteria. This leads to death of bacteria due to damaged cell wall. Along with vancomycin other supportive therapy may also be given.