How Common Is Orchitis Or Is It A Rare Disease?

Orchitis is often a condition referred for inflammation or swelling for one or both of the testicles. Several incidents of orchitis are caused by mumps virus when the individuals are not properly vaccinated. However, certain conditions occur as a result of other infections such as prostatitis, epididymis, or sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or chlamydia.

It entails the slow onset of pain and inflammation of the affected side of the scrotum and the therapy includes quick empiric antibiotic treatment, scrotal elevation, and nonsteroidal anti‑inflammatory treatment to avoid abscess growth and potential infertility.

How Common Is Orchitis?

Epididymo-orchitis is an infection of the epididymis that is generally correlated with genitourinary tract diseases. Orchitis typically circulates to the testicle over the bloodstream. Viruses commonly cause infection. A course of antibiotic drugs will normally clean up the disease. Full recovery is usual. Complications are uncommon.

Epididymitis is a medical analysis, but testicular torsion must be omitted by ultrasound since it has an analogous report and is a medical trauma. Treatment includes quick empiric antiviral treatment, scrotal elevation, and nonsteroidal anti‑inflammatory treatment to avoid swelling growth and potential infertility.

This can occur at any phase of life and is regarded as the most frequent reason of epididymo-orchitis in males aged over 30 years. This is because one-sided blockage of urine movement turns more common with rising age, due to an enlarged prostate or thinning of the urethra.1,2

Sexually Transmitted Infection – A Common Cause Of Orchitis

STI is the most common source of the epididymis in young adults however, it has a higher risk in any sexually active male.

Mumps: The virus that causes mumps is most implicated as the cause of orchitis in adult males. Mumps associated orchitis results in severe pain, swelling, and tenderness at the affected site and is often associated with high fever, nausea, and exhaustion. It is a viral childhood disease that’s rare in the United States due to effective immunization programs.

Urinary Tract Infection: Some men have a history of UTIs or prostate infections. In these individuals, orchitis typically triggered by intestinal bacteria that have proliferated from the infected spot. Urinary tract infections present at birth and repeated UTI often become a common trigger of orchitis.3,4

Is Epididymo-Orchitis A Rare Condition?

Mumps orchitis is a relatively mild short-term viral infection of the salivary glands that usually occurs during childhood. Meningitis/encephalitis is a well-recognized problem of mumps, but the disease of the testis in adolescent children and adult males are rare. It manifests a few days after the appearance of the parotid swelling, but occasionally may precede it, and rarely may present even without the parotid swelling.

Mumps orchitis rarely precedes infertility, however, it may lead to subfertility. Certain cases can lead to oligospermia (a male fertility issue characterized by a low sperm count), azoospermia (a medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm), and asthenospermia (the medical term for reduced sperm motility).

Uncommon Causes

Other viral infections are uncommon causes of epididymo-orchitis. Infection from different sections of the body can, seldom, circulate in the plasma to the testicles, such as tuberculosis (TB) and bacterial infection caused by brucella bacterium. When this happens, it is usually in people who have a problem with their immune system (for example, people with AIDS).

Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease induces epididymo-orchitis. Men with inflammatory disorder may grow irritated testicles to produce a non-infective epididymo-orchitis. Damage to the scrotum can trigger the infection of the orchitis and testicle.

The male reproductive system can be affected by chronic bilateral orchitis and male infertility may be the only clinical sign.5

References:

  1. Testicle Inflammation (Orchitis) Treatment, Definition – eMedicineHealth https://www.healthline.com/health/orchitis
  2. Orchitis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/orchitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20375860
  3. Inflammation of the Testicle (Orchitis) https://www.webmd.com/men/inflammation-testicle-orchitis#1
  4. Orchitis the Strange, the Rare and the Unusual: Case Report and Review of the Literature https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/iauc/international-archives-of-urology-and-complications-iauc-3-025.pdf
  5. A rare case of mumps orchitis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606708/

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