What is Trigonitis: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis, Prevention

What is Trigonitis?

When the vesical trigone area of the urinary bladder gets inflammed, the medical condition is known as Trigonitis. The cells in the lower bladder partly change into another kind of cell though the changes are not cancerous in nature. Vesical trigone is the triangular region of the bladder, which is bound by the ureteral orifices and the urethral sphincter. It is a smooth and flat sensitive region and if the bladder fills up, it expands too. If the vesical region expands, the bladder is required to be emptied. Trigonitis is mostly found in women of childbearing age and men develop it occasionally.

What is Trigonitis?

Symptoms of Trigonitis

The common symptoms of Trigonitis are a pain in the bladder and urinary problems while some may not have symptoms at all. Other symptoms of Trigonitis are:

  • Increase in urination frequency mostly at night.
  • Reduced bladder capacity.
  • Bladder pain.
  • Hematuria- Blood in urine.
  • Dysuria- Discomfort or pain while urinating.
  • Pain in the pelvic area.
  • Pain in certain sitting positions or discomfort during sex.
  • Some of these symptoms may trigger in case people are sensitive to certain foods.

Causes of Trigonitis

Though the exact cause of Trigonitis is not known, there are several theories behind it. As this disease mostly affects women of childbearing age, it could also be related to their hormonal levels of estrogen. In men, it could be related to their progesterone levels if they are undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.

Another cause is if someone is having a family history of urinary bladder infections, then they are more prone to have trigonitis. Repeated urinary and bladder infections can result into chronic inflammation. The insertion of the urinary catheter for a long-time after surgery causes chronic irritation and this could be a reason behind Trigonitis.

Diagnosis of Trigonitis

Trigonitis sometimes gets misdiagnosed as the symptoms of this disease are quite similar to interstitial cystitis. The main point of difference between the two is that patients suffering from Trigonitis will have a cobblestone pattern for their inflamed vesical trigone, but this is absent in interstitial cystitis. For a confirmed diagnosis of Trigonitis, a cystoscopic examination is done in which a long tube with the lens fixed in it is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. The physician with the help of lens can examine the bladder’s part to observe any inflammation.

Treatment of Trigonitis

There are several medications that can treat Trigonitis. Treatment form may vary because a treatment plan for one person may not work for another person. Some of the suggested medications are:

  • Anti-depressants at low dosages to reduce pain.
  • Antibiotics for infection in the bladder.
  • Muscle relaxers to relieve the bladder spasms.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications.
  • Instillation for fast pain relief. The instillation or bladder coating is applied through a catheter.

Bladder augmentation is a surgery, which is done to enhance the reservoir quantity of the bladder. This is executed by expanding the bladder by adding new sections of the intestinal tissue. Cystectomy, removal of the bladder through surgery is used as the last method as it means part or complete removal of bladder.

In many people, medications can be a permanent cure for Trigonitis, but there are chances of this medical condition to go beyond control accompanied by pain and urinary problems. Some trigger foods for Trigonitis include chocolate, caffeine, grains and carbonated drinks. One should stop smoking to relieve the symptoms of Trigonitis.

Prevention of Trigonitis

Doctors can help to manage the pain but there are things can be done to reduce it. Some of them are:

  • Stay active through walking and yoga.
  • Use a standing desk if long-time sitting results in pain.
  • Eat healthy foods and avoid the spicy ones.
  • Reduce your stress and find out ways to relax like meditation, listening to music and taking warm baths
  • Take the advice of a counselor. Search for someone who can train how to manage chronic pain.


Although, Trigonitis affects a major portion of the female population, very few of them go for a medical consultation. The actual cause of the disease is still not known. The absence of a concrete factor behind this makes the treatment of Trigonitis quite difficult. The latest use of laser treatment has yield promising results. More studies and theories are required to understand Trigonitis in a much better way so that adequate treatment can be provided at the correct time.

Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA
Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA
Written, Edited or Reviewed By: Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA Pain Assist Inc. This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer
Last Modified On:March 22, 2018

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