A molar pregnancy is a complication in pregnancy that is seen rarely; in which the trophoblasts grow out of control. The trophoblasts are those cells which would normally grow and become placenta. This condition is also known as a hydatidiform mole.
Can A Baby Survive A Molar Pregnancy?
In case of a partial molar pregnancy, the placental tissue is abnormally formed, but there is also a formation of normal placental tissue. The fetal tissue may also be formed, but the fetus usually does not survive and there is an early-pregnancy miscarriage. It is difficult for the baby to survive in either cases of molar pregnancy.
Two forms of molar pregnancy that are seen-
- Complete molar pregnancy
- Partial molar pregnancy
In case of a complete molar pregnancy, the placental tissue is completely abnormal, swollen and also shows the formation of cysts that are fluid filled. The fetal tissue is not formed at all.
Symptoms Of Molar Pregnancy
Molar pregnancy may feel like any other normal pregnancy in the beginning. However, it comes with its own specific signs and symptoms. These may include-
- Vaginal bleeding which is bright red or dark brown in color
- There may be a high degree of nausea and vomiting
- You may see cysts passing through the vagina, which may be grape-like in appearance
- There may be pelvic pain or pressure
Other than these, your doctor may find following signs upon further evaluation-
Your uterus may seem too large for your gestational age. There may be a fast growth of your uterus, which may not be corresponding to your gestational period
- You may suffer from a high blood pressure
- You may suffer from preeclampsia- a condition which marks an increase in blood pressure along with proteinuria
- You may be having ovarian cysts
- There may be anaemia
- You may be suffering from hyperthyroidism
Causes Of Molar Pregnancy
- Molar pregnancy is caused due to an abnormally or improperly fertilized egg
- Human cells hold 23 pairs of chromosomes
- Each pair of chromosomes gets one chromosome from the mother and the other from the father
- In case of a complete molar pregnancy, one or two sperms fertilize an empty ovum or egg
- Thus, all the genetic material is obtained from father
- The chromosomes from the mother are lost or inactivated and the chromosomes from the father are duplicated
- In a partial molar pregnancy, the maternal chromosomes are present, but the father supplies two sets of chromosomes instead of just one set
- This means there are 69 chromosomes in the embryo in place of 46 chromosomes
- This happens when two sperms fertilize one single egg
- Due to this, the embryo gets one extra set of the father’s genetic material
- In both these types, there is an imbalance of maternal and paternal sets of chromosomes, which makes it very difficult for this pregnancy to survive
- As a result, there is usually a miscarriage during early months of pregnancy
- Even if there is a normal pregnancy, which happens very rarely, the growth of the fetus will be restricted, and the baby will be born with some major abnormalities
- Thus, it is evident that it is very difficult, nearly impossible for the fetus or the baby to survive while being affected by molar pregnancy
Treatment Of Molar Pregnancy
Molar pregnancy cannot be continued due to various health complications. It needs to be removed with immediate effect. This can be done by using one or many of the given techniques- dilatation and curettage, hysterectomy and monitoring your HCG levels
A molar pregnancy is a very rare complication seen in pregnancy, which typically shows an abnormal growth of the trophoblasts, the cells that would normally grow and become placenta. Since the placenta is compromised in this condition and placenta provides the nutrition to the baby when in womb; it is very difficult, nearly impossible for a baby to survive a molar pregnancy.
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