Which Diagnostic Tests are Important for People on Reaching the Age 30?
Diagnostic test is an important aspect of clinical practice since they assist clinicians in establishing whether a patient has or does not have a particular medical condition. Diagnostic tests can help us significantly in maintaining health for both sick as well as healthy people. Regular Health screening or medical diagnostic tests is very important for a healthy living and also one can know their health status in advance before the condition or disease becomes too late or worsened. At the present time, people start suffering from many of the lifestyle related disease right from their 30s. Diagnostic tests can help catch a disorder early on, even before it starts showing symptoms, thereby helping you take preventive steps. Here’s a list of the essential diagnostic tests to be started on reaching the age 30.
The Following Diagnostic Tests are Important for People on Reaching the Age 30:
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
A routine complete blood count (CBC) is required as part of the evaluation and includes, the hemoglobin, the hematocrit and red cell indices which include:
- The mean cell volume (MCV) in femtoliter.
- Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in picograms per cell.
- Mean concentration of hemoglobin per volume of red cells (MCHC) in grams per litre (non-SI: grams per decilitre).
A number of physiologic factors affect the CBC including age, sex, pregnancy, smoking and altitude. CBC provides other important information such as: The reticulocyte count and measurements of iron supply including serum iron and total iron binding capacity.
Classification of Anemia with the Help of Complete Blood Count
The components of the CBC also help in the classification of anemia. Thus the following are included in CBC:
- Red Blood Cell Count, which consists of hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte count.
- Red Blood Cell Indices: Mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell distribution width (RDW).
- White Blood Cell Count: Cell Differentiation and nuclear segmentation of neutrophils.
- Cell Morphology: Cell size, hemoglobin content, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and polychromasia.
- Platelet Count: Any increase or decrease in the platelet count.
Normal Values of The Following Tests Are:
- Mean cell volume (MCV) = 90 +/- 8 fl
- Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) = 30 +/- 3 pg
- Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) = 33 +/- 2%
- Foetal hemoglobin = 17 +/- 2 gm/dl
- Adult male hemoglobin = 15 +/- 2.5 gm/dl
- Adult female hemoglobin = 13 +/- 2.5 gm/dl
Problem of high blood pressure can set in at any age but many people start suffering from it in their 30s, so it is important to keep track of your blood pressure reading. Measurement of blood pressure usually is delegated to a medical assistant, but should be repeated by the clinician. Accurate measurement depends on body position, arm size, time of measurement, place of measurement, device, device size, technique and examiner. Blood pressure is best measured in the seated position with the arm at the level of the heart, using an appropriately sized cuff, after 5 to 10 minutes of relaxation. Blood pressure should be measured in both arms and the difference should be less than 10 mmHg.
Blood pressure measures two pressure rates of heart; one while contraction; other while relaxation known as systolic and diastolic phases. The normal blood pressure lies between systolic 100-139 mmHg and diastolic 60-99 mmHg. A blood pressure differential that exceeds this threshold may be associated with atherosclerotic or inflammatory subclavian artery disease, supravalvular aortic stenosis, aortic coarctation or aortic dissection. Systolic leg pressures are usually as much as 20 mmHg higher than systolic arm pressures. Greater leg-arm pressure differences are seen in patients with chronic severe AR, as well as patients with extensive and calcified lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. The ankle-brachial index (lower pressure in the dorsalpedis or posterior tibial artery divided by the higher of the two brachial artery pressures) is a powerful predictor of long-term cardiovascular disease.
Blood Sugar Test
Glucose tolerance can be assessed using the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), the response to oral glucose challenge, or the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The normal level of fasting glucose in the blood is 90 to 125 milligrams per decilitre. The normal level of random glucose in the blood is less than 200 milligrams per decilitre. Thus, the blood sugar test plays a very important role in the screening of a deadly disease that is diabetes mellitus, majorly diabetes mellitus type 2. Diabetes is the world’s most common fatal disease and needs to be screened immediately, especially in people in their 30s and those who are leading a sedentary type of lifestyle and zero physical activity because it can cause suppression of body’s immune system leading to furthermore complications and diseases like Diabetic Ulcer, Diabetic Retinopathy, which is the leading cause of world blindness especially in India.
- Lipid profile testing is an indicator of the health of our cardiovascular system.
- It tells us about our body’s cholesterol level, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein.
- Normal LDL Cholesterol = 100-129 mg/dl
- High LDL Cholesterol = 130-159 mg/dl
- Total Cholesterol = Less than 200 mg/dl
- High total Cholesterol = 240 mg/dl or higher
- HDL Cholesterol = Men ( 40-50 mg/dl) Women ( 50-59 mg/dl)
- Normal Fasting Triglycerides = less than 150 mg/dl
- Normal NON – HDL Cholesterol = less than 130 mg/dl
Although an ECG usually should be recorded in patients with known or suspected heart disease, with the exception of the identification of arrhythmia, conduction abnormal heart sounds, ventricular hypertrophy and acute myocardial infarction; it generally does not establish a specific diagnosis. The range of normal electrocardiographic findings is wide and the tracing can be affected significantly by many non-cardiac factors, such as age, body habitus, and serum electrolyte concentrations. In general, electrocardiographic changes should be interpreted in the context of other abnormal cardiovascular findings.
Liver Function Tests
Liver Function Test includes the following tests: serum bilirubin, serum albumin, serum globulin and coagulation factors etc. These tests help to know about the diagnosis of any pathology of liver or any occurrence of diseases like hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis, fatty liver, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma etc.
Kidney Function Test
These tests include the following test like serum creatinine and serum urea and is important to be done on reaching the age of 30. Any increase in the level of this urea or creatinine can lead to the establishment of improper working and functioning of kidneys. Kidney Function Test helps in finding out various conditions like hydronephrosis, renal calyces, increased blood sugar or kidney failure etc.
Thyroid Function Test
These are done to rule out any abnormality in the function of thyroid gland and its function. Normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and TPO axis is usually seen to check any dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
It helps to prevent diseases that are common in this age group like Hashimoto’s disease, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease, thyroiditis, lymphoma or carcinoma, overproduction or underutilization of iodine and goitre etc. Thyroid Function Test plays an important in pregnancy and needs to be strictly monitored as it provides food and nourishment to the developing fetus and helps in the mental development of the child. Its lack can lead to fetal demise or fetal death or congenital anomalies in an unborn fetus.
Vitamin D Levels
Due to severe dietary deficiency and decreased uptake of vitamin D, its levels need to be monitored regularly especially on reaching the age 30. Vitamin D deficiency is the main cause of diseases like osteoporosis and women are more prone to it after menopause. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to easy fractures and injuries to the bone.
This test is done for women to rule out the possibility of Human Papilloma Virus infection, as it can cause a deadly disease that is cervical cancer. Thus the Pap smear should be started as early as the sexual activity of women begins and after 21 years it should be done in all women. Vaccination of this disease is also available.
This test is done in males only and usually in males above 50 years of age. Prostate exam is done to rule out the possibility of any prostatic cancer or BPH that is Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy.
This test is done in females only and helps in establishing the diagnosis of breast cancer that is 4th most leading cancer in the world. Regular check-ups along with mammogram can lead to early prevention of breast diseases in women.
This test is done usually, whenever a person suffers from symptoms like an increase in the urgency and frequency of micturition or when there is burning sensation while micturition. Urine exam is done to help in establishing the diagnosis of bacterial colonies or any other fungal infection in the urinary tract that can lead to Urinary Tract Infection Syndrome.