A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs due to abnormal swelling in the aorta because of weak one thickness in the chest region. It leads to life-threatening complications and symptoms. Because of the seriousness, it is essential to diagnose the same at an appropriate time and seek immediate medical attention to prevent the situation from escalating to criticality.
How is a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repaired?
Repairing a thoracic aortic aneurysm involves the standard surgery, which is the open chest aneurysm repair. The open chest aneurysm repair requires placement of a metal clip to the bulging of the aorta, which prevents expansion and rupture. However, advancement in the medical field developed a new procedure known as endovascular repair surgery, where a surgeon will place a stent graft by removing the affected region of the aorta and replacing it with a human-made tube.
Endovascular Stent Graft
Endovascular stent graft surgery is nothing but placing long catheter tubes in the aorta. The surgeon will carry out the operation by performing a small incision in the groin and deliver the catheter tube to the location of an aneurysm. The surgeon will place the tube in such a manner that it will divert the flow of blood away from the swelling of the aorta. Because of this action, the chances of rupturing reduce drastically.
Advantages of Endovascular Stent Graft
the advantages of using endovascular stent graft to treat thoracic aortic aneurysm are as follows:
- The procedure is less painful
- The individual has low risk of complications
- The recovery period is normal
- The patient can leave the hospital in a few days.
Eligibility for the Surgery
Not every patient is eligible for the thoracic aortic aneurysm operation. The reason behind this is that not all swellings on the aorta rupture. The chances of rupturing are low if the size of an aneurysm is less than 5 centimeters in diameter. Therefore, a person is only eligible for the surgery if the size of an aneurysm exceeds the stated standards. In addition to it, the doctor will also consider factors such as the age of the patient, medical history, location of an aneurysm, blood pressure, and risks associated with the surgery.
To attain a concrete decision, the physician will perform high-resolution computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, intravascular ultrasound, x-ray, angiography, and transesophageal echocardiography. The physical characteristics of the aorta also determine whether it is essential in choosing endovascular aorta repair procedure for thoracic aortic aneurysm.
Risks Involved With Endovascular Stent Graft
Endovascular stent graft helps in treating the thoracic aortic aneurysm with reduced complications. However, there still exist a few risk factors:
- Leakage of blood around the catheter tube known as endoleak
- Migration of the graft from its origin
- Fracturing of the stent.
Although the risk factors are minimal, ensuring that they do not occur help in preventing the appearance of serious complications such as paralysis, permanent damage to the blood vessels surrounding the aneurysm, and growth of infections.
The physician will discuss in detail about the risk factors as well as the advantages associated with the endovascular repair procedure for thoracic aortic aneurysm. The durability of the system is unknown because it is a new process. Therefore, the surgeon will monitor closely on a regular basis and study the changes with the help of imaging tests.
The rehabilitation period after the thoracic aortic aneurysm operation is short when compared with other procedures. However, there are certain restrictions and the change from one individual to other. The surgeon will provide the details after the surgery based on the symptoms experienced by the person.