What is Neurocardiogenic Syncope?
Syncope in medical terms refers to fainting and it is a very common type of finding in any clinical practice. Irregular heart rate or cardiac arrhythmia and syndromes are few frequently identified Syncope reasons and such problems take place because of cardio-neurological problems, such as vasovagal problems, neurocardiogenic syncope and vasodepressor.
Both of these health conditions have close relationship with impaired circulation of blood in human brain, which results in temporary loss of memory or consciousness.
If we talk about cardiac arrhythmia, increase in the heart rate or tachycardia has relatively higher contribution towards the problem of syncope than decreased heart rate or bradycardia.
Neurocardiogenic syncope also refers to neutrally mediated hypotension, which has many other medical terms, like fainting reflex, autonomic dysfunction, vasovagal syncope, vasodepressor syncope and similar others. In this case, vasovagal nerve maintains the human blood pressure.
In case peripheral vessels of human blood dilates, pooling of the blood from lower limbs takes places & insufficient amount of blood reaches in brain and causes fainting or syncope.
Causes of Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Exact cause about the problem of neurocardiogenic syncope remains unknown among doctors. However, experts suspected that genetic factors interfere with the condition. In fact, they have drawn such correlation based on their common findings about family history of their patients.
Etiology associated with neurocardiogenic syncope, as mentioned here explains that neurogenic hypotension results in syncope. Hence, you should strictly avoid risk factors directed towards activation of hypotension and following of syncope.
Signs and Symptoms of Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Individuals, who frequently suffer from the problem of neurocardiogenic syncope, they observe noticeable symptoms. These include persistent dizziness, fatigue, light-headedness, sudden sweating, palpitation, nausea, joint pain, muscle ache and fainting in abrupt manner.
However, it is not essential that each symptom of neurocardiogenic syncope is prominent in each patient, but the symptom of abrupt fainting remains common for all individuals. Fatigue is usually somewhat a problematic symptom, as it hinders daily activities.
Even few individuals face with the problem related to lacking concentration because of the dilation of peripheral blood vessels. To maintain the required blood pressure, body pools blood from various lower extremities. In this manner, the entire procedure hampers proper circulation of blood in human brain and constricts mental tasks.
Moreover, symptoms mentioned here may further categorize into pre as well as post fainting signs.
Pre Fainting Signs of Neurocardiogenic Syncope are:
- Pallor of skin
- Tunnel or narrow vision, in which individuals may see only nearby objects
- Warm feeling
- Blurred vision
- Sudden blackout.
Patients face few prominent symptoms of neurocardiogenic syncope as:
- Slowing down of pulse rate
- Dilation of Eye Pupils
- Shuddering body movements.
Although, duration of the problem related to fainting lasts for only some seconds, but without abrupt changes in posture or rest may result in consistent fainting. Hence, doctors always advice to take rest for 15 minutes or half an hour minimum after suffering from syncope attack.
Risk Factors for Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Neurocardiogenic syncope has following risk factors:
- Standing under warm temperature for prolonged period, as it results in dehydration of people and result in hypotension.
- Extensive physical workout or exercise
- Withdrawing of blood
- Emotional stress
- Intake of alcohol
- Movement of bowels after food, which results in digestion and circulation of blood within the intestine
- Infection and
- Diet comprised of low salt.
- Salt gives significant benefits to hypotension patients despite it being harmful for those suffering with hypertensive problem. Salt in case of hypotension maintains overall fluid volume in vessels of blood and thereby, pressure in the right way.
Treatment for Neurocardiogenic Syncope
The emergency treatment for neurocardiogenic syncope immediately after an attack:
- Patients should essentially lie down in the position for minimum 15 minutes to up to 30 minutes.
- Intake of salty or saline water is essential to retain blood pressure.
- Patients should stay aware about the factors of risk and avail the advice for taking rest in case of any symptom.
Advancements in medical science provide different types of treatment types to deal with syncope. Suggested treatment relies on patient's age, associated illnesses, tilt response and list of routine medications.
Medications to Treat Neurocardiogenic Syncope
General prescriptions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope come with following medicines:
- Vasodilators or central acting agents and MAO inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants
However, doctors never prescribe prolonged usage of any such drug. Instead, they recommend withdrawal of such drugs on gradual basis.
In case a patient suffers from repetitive or chronic neurocardiogenic syncope, based on specific factors of a patient, doctors may prescribe following drugs-
- Beta-blockers therapy
- Serotonin reuptake therapy
- Steroidal drugs.
Cardiac Pacing for Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Cardiac pacing type of therapy for neurocardiogenic syncope specifically shows beneficial effects in patients suffering from bradycardal symptoms. Moreover, patients should undergo for medical therapy to get relief in significant manner.