Would A CBC Show Multiple Myeloma?
Various diagnostic methods are available to diagnose the disease. The methods range from simple blood analysis to more advanced bone marrow biopsy. Blood is the fluid connective tissue and flows to and from every organ. Thus, there are high chances that abnormality in any organ may reflect in the blood test.
Would A CBC Show Multiple Myeloma?
CBC As A Diagnostic Method For Multiple Myeloma
Complete blood count- or CBC in short is one of the basic tests for the diagnosis of a plethora of diseases. Some are non-critical such as preliminary infection, or mild anemia while the others disease diagnosed with CBC are more serious such as cancer or polycythemia vera. It is to be noted that there are no symptoms of multiple myeloma in its initial stage and thus the condition is diagnosed early while seeking a diagnosis for any other illness. CBC is the complete blood cell count and the test is subdivided into the count of RBC, WBC, and Platelets. Further, the RBC and WBC are further divided into their respective compliments and integral parameters. Smoldering multiple myeloma and the related disease i.e. monoclonal gammopathy of undermined significance (MGUS) are the diseases diagnosed with the CBC.
CBC not only helps in the diagnosis of the disease; it also helps in evaluating the effects as well as side effects of the treatment. During the treatment of such cancers, the bone marrow suppression drugs are given to reduce the quantity of the blood cells as in the case of Polycythemia Vera. The results of the CBC give an idea whether the other cells of the blood do not reach to a dangerously low level. It this is so, then the doctor will either reduce the dose or frequency of the drug or may change the treatment altogether. (1)
Multiple myeloma is the cancer of plasma cells which originates from the Beta lymphocytes, a part of white blood cells. These plasma cells divide uncontrollably and overcrowd the bone marrow. They also hinder the growth of various other blood cells leading to their concentration relatively lower than the reference value. This alteration in the level of cells can easily be identified through CBC. (2)
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer of plasma cells and as with other types of cancer, the early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment as soon as possible, significantly affects the prognosis of the disease. Various diagnosis techniques are available for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. The diagnosis is done to identify the presence of disease, the stage at which the disease has progressed and also the effect of the treatment on the disease. The diagnostic techniques help the Oncologists to start the appropriate treatment to the new patients and may evaluate and revise the treatment for the old patients. Following are the various blood tests that are used to preliminary diagnose the multiple myeloma:
Plasma Protein Test: Immunoglobulin proteins are present in the blood in a well-defined concentration. The cancerous cells secrete a large amount of an abnormal protein in the blood which can be analyzed through electrophoresis scan. (3)
Serum Free Light Chains- The ratio between the kappa and lambda light chains is abnormal in the patients suffering from multiple myeloma. These free light chains are secreted by the plasma cells.
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Test- This is the comprehensive test involving the blood sample. The test helps in evaluating the kidney and the liver function as well as the amount of total protein in the blood. As the calcium resorption increases in multiple myeloma, this test also indicates the high level of calcium in the blood. (4)
The preliminary diagnosis of multiple myeloma can be done through blood tests. Multiple myeloma is the cancer of the blood cells and thus the CBC may identify the variations in the cellular ratio within the blood is significantly changed. Further, the test may identify the high level of various minerals such as calcium.
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