How Is Long QT Syndrome Inherited?
LQTS i.e. Long QT Syndrome implies a condition of heart rhythm, which causes chaotic and fast heartbeats. These rapid heartbeats may activate seizure or sudden fainting spell among patients. Moreover, in some of the cases, heartbeat occurs in an abnormal way for a long time, which leads to sudden death.
Inherited or Acquired Form Of Long QT Syndrome
A patient may have genetic mutation, which puts one at huge risk by birth with congenital LQTS. On the contrary, specific medications and health conditions cause imbalance of various salts and minerals i.e. electrolyte abnormalities and thereby, lead to acquired form of long QT syndrome. In this blog post, we will discuss inherited type of LQTS in detail.
How is Long QT Syndrome Inherited?
Inherited type of long QT syndrome problem develops due to genetic mutations responsible to control ion channels and tiny pores present on the surface of your heart’s muscle cells.
Ion channels are responsible to regulate the flow of various ions, like magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium among the heart cells and the ion flow generates the electrical activity of an individual’s heart.
However, in case of individuals suffering from long QT syndrome, body creates ion channels in too few numbers or ion channels fail to work properly. Reduction in the ion flow avoids proper electrical activity in the heart’s lower chambers i.e. ventricles leading to irregular heartbeats.
Study On Inherited Long QT Syndrome Problem
Until now, doctors have found about 17 genes related to the problem of long QT syndromes and about hundreds of genetic mutations in such genes. Mutations in three of such genes result in approximately 75% of the cases related to LQTS, while mutations in any other minor gene contribute only a small perfect of the case. Furthermore, about 20% of people suffering from definite congenital long QT syndrome have negative test results. On the other side, family members with genetically setup long QT syndrome i.e. between 10% and 37% of their relatives with positive LQTS genetic test have normal interval of QT.
Forms of Inherited Long QT Syndrome
Until now, doctors have mentioned two different forms of inherited long QT syndrome. These include-
Common Form of Romano-Ward Syndrome
Common form of Romano-Ward Syndrome takes place among individuals inheriting only a single type of genetic variant from a single long QT syndrome parent.
Rare Form of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome
Rare Form of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome often takes place during the early stage but later on, it becomes a severe one. According to this syndrome, children inherit genetic variants from their both parents. Moreover, these kids have long QT syndrome and born as deaf.
Along with this, scientists are consistently investigating possible links between long QT syndrome and sudden infant death syndrome and until now, they have identified about 5 to 10% babies affected due to SIDS had genetic mutation or detect related to long QT syndrome.
Prevention to Inherited Form of Long QT Syndrome
If you are a patient of inherited long QT syndrome, you should make sure taking care of the medicines you intake. A few medications, like decongestants, specific appetite suppressants and antibiotics often trigger dangerous/abnormal heart rhythms. In this case, you should consult with your doctor about what you should take or cannot take to stay safe. Particularly, you should avoid the intake of illegal drugs, like amphetamines and cocaine, as both of them pose severe risks for LQTS patients.
Along with this, you should look for right away medical treatment to deal with illnesses, which lead to low levels of potassium in the blood, especially if you suffer from excessive diarrhea and vomiting, as they trigger episodes related to long QT syndrome. Finally, doctors may advice you avoiding diuretics and other similar types of drugs, as they have low levels of potassium in the human blood.