According to recent studies, the lifetime risk of getting portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the general population is reported to be 1%. The reason for getting PVT is unknown and remains unresolved. The blood clot typically completely blocks the portal vein makes the blood to flow back causing high pressures. This may cause enlargement of abdomen and bleeding occurs. Normally, the risk of death due to PVT is very low. If bleeding occurs in the presence of liver failure, there is a high chance of mortality within a year. Statistically, more than 30% of individual’s death cases were reported because of bleeding and liver failure.
What Is The Life Expectancy With Portal Vein Thrombosis?
The survival time after diagnosis of bleeding in PVT or portal vein thrombosis cases has been reported to be < 3 months without treatment. Some studies have reported the median survival period for patients, which are 2.7 to 4.0 months without treatment. Though much advancement have been made in the management of PVT, the condition of patients and prognosis remains poor. The survival of patients depends on the PVT development characteristics, including the location and extent of portal vein involvement. In children with PVT, the prognosis is much better overall, with a 10-year survival rate greater than 70%, which is attributable to the low incidence of underlying malignancy and cirrhosis.
In acute condition, the patients occasionally vomit blood unless if there are any preexisting varices. Abdominalia and fever occurred more frequently in patients with acute PVT. But in a chronic condition, i.e. who has prolonged PVT is always present vomit with blood. It occurs after 3 to 4 years of initial diagnosis and the amount of bleeding is frightening, even for the physician. Weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, and pain in the abdomen are some of the common symptoms of chronic PVT patients. The overall mortality in chronic onset PVT is less than 10% whereas, in cirrhosis and malignancy, it is 26%.
Anticoagulation therapy such as vitamin K-antagonist, low molecular weight heparin, and heparin are promising in improving the quality of life. The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator has been the standard of care for treatment of acute ischemic stroke for several years. It is actively involved in the breakdown of blood clots.
Patients who received anticoagulant therapy more frequently achieved complete recanalization and the rates scored between 33% and 45% after 6 months. Patients with varices who were treated endoscopically in combination with β-blockade had regression of the varices. The overall mortality was 13% in one year and was dependent on underlying causes.
- What is Portal Vein Thrombosis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
- What are the Portal Vein Thrombosis Complications?
- How Serious is Portal Vein Thrombosis?
- Is Portal Vein Thrombosis a DVT?