What Can Cause Chronic Pelvic Pain, Know its Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Epidmiology

What is Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)?

Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP) occurs in the lower abdomen and pelvic part of the human body. The entire area surrounding the abdomen and pelvic experiences the chronic pelvic pain than at a single point. It generates mainly in the pelvic area which is below the bellybutton and in-between the hips. It causes immense pain and can last for a maximum of 6 months or even more in a person.

Chronic pelvic pain can be an indication of presence of other disease in the body. It can even grow by its own. The reasons of chronic pelvic pain are mostly unknown. The treatment is mainly based on finding the cause of the pelvic pain.

In some women it is really tough to test the real reason of the origin of chronic pain in pelvis. The treatment is done to bring the pain in control and teaching survival techniques during this period of chronic pelvic pain (CPP).

What is Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)?

Etiology of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is one of the common problems in women and it is a complicated problem to treat for medical practitioners due to its unknown cause of occurrence and poor medical response to treatment.

Chronic pelvic pain cannot always be successfully treated due to its poor diagnosis. The reasons of this syndrome are completely unknown. However a number of factors are paid attention to only to bring the pain in control. The nervous system, muscles and psychological treatment are done to help a person cope up with chronic pelvic pain.

Bladder or bowel dysfunction and sexual dysfunction are the constitutional symptoms which arise with chronic pelvic pain (CPP).Chronic pain in pelvic can also cause depression and / or anxiety. People tend to incline towards drug addiction due to extreme pain.

In the United States, the medical costs to treat chronic pelvic pain (CPP) for reproductive aged women are around $881.5 million in a year.

Pathophysiology of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

The pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is still not clear to medical practitioners. It is due to many factors and usually complex in nature.

Causes of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

Causes of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

Chronic pelvic pain does not have any specific reason of occurrence. It can cause to a person without any reason also. The psychological factors increase to the complexities of the pain in pelvic. Since this pain in pelvic is prolonged and takes much time in recovery, people tend to get emotionally distressed during the time period.

The major causes detected for chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are:

  • Endometriosis in women is one of the major reasons of chronic pelvic pain (CPP). The tissues in the lining the woman’s womb or uterus tends to develop outside the uterus. These effects the menstrual cycle of the woman due to accumulation of tissues. The hormones fluctuate with the thickening and breaking down of the line of tissues during each month’s bleeding. Due to the gathering of tissues outside the uterus, the blood cannot flow through the vagina. The blood does not completely flow out of the body and remains in the abdomen. Thus it forms cysts and adhesions which are extremely painful in women.
  • Tension or Spasms in the floor of pelvic muscles cause repeated chronic pelvic pain (CPP).
  • Any chronic pelvic inflammatory disease occurred due to sexually contaminated diseases also causes pain in the pelvic organs.
  • Ovarian remnant which is the cyst formed in the body in the time of hysterectomy in women causes’ chronic pelvic pain (CPP). During the complete removal of uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries in a surgery, this cyst is generally formed. This can cause chronic pelvic pain if not treated early.
  • The noncancerous uterine which develops in the lower abdomen of the body called fibroids is the cause of sharp pain in the pelvic region. The pain remains till these growths remain alive due to supply of blood in them.
  • Bloating tendencies, constipation, diarrhea or other symptoms of irritating bowels causes pelvic pain. When left untreated for quite some time, this pain can grow chronic and become unbearable.
  • Painful bladder syndrome. Irritated bladder causes pain in the pelvic region while passing urine. The bladder generates the pain when it is full.
  • Certain psychological factors like worries, anxiety, depression, physical abuse or sexual abuse increase the chances of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women. The emotional distress due to such turmoil causes unbearable pain.
  • Pelvic congestion syndrome. Congestion in the pelvic organs also causes chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Enlarged veins in the uterus and ovaries cause such chronic pelvic pain. This pain is most recorded in women.

Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) has characteristics of its own. The signs and symptoms of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are:

Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

  • Continuous and serious pain
  • Frequent occurrence of pain
  • Unbearable extreme pain
  • Muscle cramping due to sharp pains
  • Pelvic experience to be heavy due to extreme nature of pain

Other than the above mentioned signs and symptoms, the person may experience the following during chronic pelvic pain:

  • Pain during sex.
  • Pain during excretion or urinary discharge.
  • Pain between the pelvic if the person has to sit in the same position for a long time.

The chronic pain in pelvis increases after the person has to sit or stand in the same position for quite some time. However, a little relief is gained if she gets to lie down for some time. The pain is sometimes very little yet irritating. Sometimes chronic pelvic pain can grow so severe that the person experiencing the pain may not be in a condition to join work for the day. It even does not allow sleeping or working out.

Epidemiology of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common issue in United States of America. One woman out of seven is affected with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Around 39 percent of women are suffering from chronic pelvic pain as revealed in a study of reproductive-aged women in primary care practices. 10 percent women are recorded to be suffering from pelvic pain during their pregnancy.

Mortality/Morbidity: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is also prevalent in the similar way in other countries. Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) when untreated for a long time may bring to adverse medical disability forcing a lifelong therapy. It affects the personal life of the sufferer and creates marital as well as other family problems.

Prevalence of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)

Generally 6 percent to 26 percent of people suffer from chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Many countries have still to be surveyed for the data. This is due to the absence of proper studies or researches on the subject in many countries on chronic pelvic pain (CPP). More students have to be engaged towards the research of chronic pelvic pain in a proper way just to reveal the occurrence of the syndrome in many nations. This would be a good initiation towards the care and treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women.

Also Read:

Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA
Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA
Written, Edited or Reviewed By: Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA Pain Assist Inc. This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimer
Last Modified On:January 23, 2018

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