Miscarriage is a spontaneous loss of a fetus before 23 weeks of pregnancy. Most miscarriages occur in early pregnancy before the realization of the pregnant women. It is represented by vaginal bleeding, cramps, and pain in the abdomen. However, slight bleeding from the vagina is commonly observed in the first three months of pregnancy.
Miscarriage happens mainly due to genetic problems in the fetus. It is usually not related to pregnant women. Most of the miscarriages cannot be prevented.
What Percentage Of Pregnancies Ends In Miscarriage?
- 10-20 percentage of pregnancy ends in miscarriage. However, these stats can be higher because many women do not know that they are pregnant and miscarriage has happened.
- March of Dimes states that 50% of all pregnancies end in miscarriages before a woman have next menstrual flow. Most of them are not aware of their pregnancy. About 15-20% of recognized pregnancy converts into a miscarriage.
- It is estimated that 80% of miscarriage happen in the first trimester in the first three months of pregnancy. Most of the fetus is lost in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- The chances of miscarriage increase with an increase in age of the pregnant women.
- There are 15% chances of miscarriage under the age of 35 years
- There are 20-35% chances in between 35-45 years.
- It increases up to 50% if the pregnant women are above 45 years of age.
- If a woman has a past history of miscarriage, then there are 25% chances that she may have another one.
85% of ladies conceive again after miscarriages and have a normal pregnancy and can give birth to babies. Miscarriages do not induce infertility. The autoimmune response may induce miscarriages in 1–2% of women. Miscarriages cannot be prevented. But if risk factors are detected, earlier, there are treatment options are available to treat the identified problem. If a mother’s illness is treated earlier, there is a high possibility of a successful pregnancy.
Miscarriage is a spontaneous phenomenon in which fetus is lost before the completion of the first trimester. Many ladies remain unaware of their pregnancy and miscarriage happens before the normal menstrual period. It happens shortly after the implantation of the fetus that ends through the representation of vaginal bleeding, just at the time of expected period. Such a pregnancy is known as a chemical pregnancy. Most of the cases of miscarriage happen in the first 13 weeks of pregnancy.
The symptoms of miscarriage are-
- Severe Cramps in the abdomen
- Brown or bright red Bleeding from the vagina that may range light to heavy bleeding
- Painful contractions in the abdomen in every 5-20 minutes
- General weakness
- Pain in the back (mild to severe)
- Loss in the weight
- Clots coming out of the vagina
- Sudden Drop in the signs of the pregnancy
Miscarriages are unpredictable and cannot be prevented. Its causes are varied and unidentified in most cases. Chromosomal abnormality of the fetus is the main cause of miscarriage. These abnormalities arise when unhealthy or damaged sperm or ovum meet to form a zygote. Miscarriage is often unrelated to the mother.
Other causes are-
- Hormonal disturbances
- Abnormalities of uterus
- Thyroid disease or diabetes of mother
- Maternal trauma
- Improper implantation of the egg in the uterine lining
- Lifestyle of a mother (smoking, malnutrition, drug use, overconsumption of coffee and exposure to toxic materials or radiation)
- Maternal age over the age of 35 years
- Past history of three or more miscarriages
- Incompetent cervix
Miscarriage represents a loss of pregnancy usually in first 23 weeks of pregnancy. It accounts for 10-25 % of all pregnancies in which many women are unaware of their pregnancy as many of them happen in early pregnancy. It does not affect the next pregnancy.