Cecitis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Complications
What is Cecitis?
Cecitis is a condition where the large intestine of a person gets affected by an infection. As a result, a part of the large intestine – the cecum has inflammations. This is a severe situation that affects people who have an abnormally low immune system. As a result of this these people are unable to fight infections as done in the case of normal healthy people. Cecitis is a condition that is also referred to as Typhlitis, neutropenic enterocolitis, ileocecal syndrome or necrotizing.
The exact trigger factor causing cecitis is not fully known by the medical fraternity. In most cases, it has been seen that patients who receive chemotherapy for cancer often emerges with a weakened immune system and a considerably damaged intestine. These are the people who develop the condition of cecitis as a side effect of their chemotherapy treatment. If not treated in a proper manner and at an early stage the situation can be quite critical.
Symptoms of Cecitis
The indications of cecitis can be quite misleading as they are rather similar to any normal or ordinary intestinal infection. These indications or symptoms can come quite suddenly and will include things like vomiting, high fever with chills, a nausea tendency, and diarrhea and stomach pain. In certain cases, there can also be a bloating with the tenderness of the stomach. A person who has these problem due to a side effect of chemotherapy often develops Cecits within a span of two weeks from the therapy. This happens due to a depleting level of neutrophils a kind of white blood cell that helps to improve the immune system and fight the various infections of the body.
Causes of Cecitis
Cecitis or typhlitis is a condition that occurs when the mucus linings of the intestine, also known as mucosa, gets severely damaged. Damage of this level can be rendered by chemotherapy radiations and drugs in most of the cases. Researches can confirm the fact that an increasing number of cecitis cases amongst adults can be attributed to a category of cancer treatment that is referred to cytotoxic chemotherapy. This weakened intestine is then attacked by harmful bacteria and adverse fungi. The immune compromised patients are unable to fight these harmful fungi and bacteria which then cause havoc in the cecum of the large intestine.
Having said that, it must be mentioned that cecitis or typhlitis is a type of disease that is most common in patients who has types of cancer that affect the blood cells or parts of the blood cells that weakens the immunity system, like Leukemia, Lymphoma. There are certainly other types of disease as well like multiple myeloma which is a type of cancer that occurs in the plasma cells present in bone marrow. Patients of myelodysplastic syndromes and aplastic anemia can also develop this problem. Patients affected with AIDS or HIV who have no immune system can also get affected by cecitis in the absence of T cells. Patients who have undergone a transplant of solid organs or bone marrow can also experience this condition.
Treatment for Cecitis
There are different schools of opinion regarding the treatment processes that must be taken up for a patient of cecitis or typhlitis.
Immediate Treatment – Immediate treatment for Cecitis once the patient is admitted in the hospital will include fast administration of antibiotics through the medium of IV. In addition to this general supportive care is also given where the patient is given general pain relief and intravenous fluids. One of the elementary aspects of this treatment is that bowel rest is mandatory for the patient. This means that the patient is not given anything to eat or drink and nutrition is administered to the patient through the means of intravenous. A suction tube is entered through the nose into the stomach so that all the digestive juices can be taken out of the stomach (1).
Surgery – In certain situations, emergency surgery could also be required. This is a condition that is required if severe complications turn up in the process like bowel perforation and hemorrhage. However, surgery for Cecitis is often taken to be the last resort. Surgery amongst people suffering from neutropenia is always considered to be quite risky. Hence it is kept if the matters are really worse and there is no other alternative.
Change Of Nature Of Chemotherapy – It has been said that cecitis is a situation or a medical condition that could get triggered off due to certain types of chemotherapy. If this is the case then in the later courses of treatment different chemotherapy needs to be done for the patient.
Complications in Cecitis
Cecitis as a condition can worsen if the inflammation in the cecum spreads to the other parts of the intestine. In other situations, blood supply could also get cut off to the intestine due to the injury and the inflammation. In such a condition the tissues of the affected area will start dying in no time.
Other complications can come up in the form of intestinal bleeding or a condition of hemorrhage, the formation of pus in the abdomen, sepsis, blocking of the intestines, inflammation of the abdominal cavity tissue lines, etc. With all these problems coming up treatment for the person can become quite difficult and matters can worsen really quick.
People who suffer from a weak immune system must be a little extra cautious in this case. It is advisable that they must be in constant checkup with the doctors if they have a history of chemotherapy in the past. It is not mandatory that all patients who have undergone chemotherapy in the past will suffer from this problem. This is a problem that occurs in people who has a tendency of a weak intestinal immune system. General caution and taking good care of your diet and the quality of water that you have you can stay in good health and can fight the problem in a successful manner. With improving the immune system you can easily overcome the situation in no time.
- COSTA R I D da; SOUZA P M S B de; GARCIA R B; PEZZI, F. Diagnosis and treatment of non-neutropenic patient with typhlitis: case report. ABCD, arq. bras. cir. dig. [online]. 2011, vol.24, n.2 [cited 2019-04-28], pp.180-182. ISSN 0102-6720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-67202011000200018.